Unit 1 History & Approaches AP Psychology Myers

Unit 1 History & Approaches AP Psychology Myers

empiricism
empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish
experimental psychology
experimental psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
behaviorism
behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
humanistic psychology
humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth
cognitive neuroscience
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival with most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
level of analysis
level of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biological psychology
biological psychology
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
evolutionary psychology
evolutionary psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
psychodynamic psychology
psychodynamic psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
behavioral psychology
behavioral psychology
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
cognitive psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatin
social-cultural psychology
social-cultural psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
psychometrics
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
basic research
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
developmental psychology
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
educational psychology
educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
personality psychology
the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting
social psychology
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
applied research
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
human factors psychology
human factors psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
counseling psychology
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
clinical psychology
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
Aristotle
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato’s metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
Francis Bacon
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) called empiricism; rejected Medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it’s necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method
Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins
American psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality, and dreams; first woman president of the American Psychological Association
Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Rene Descartes
French nativist philosopher; proponent of dualism; argued that “threads” within the body control movement, and that some behaviors occur without thought
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820’s, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
american psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the United States and founded the American Psychological Association
William James
William James
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment, father of American Psychology, wrote 1st psychology book, remember pilgram.
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a “social contract” in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. Wrote Tabula Rosa
Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow
humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual’s motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence
Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936)
Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
Plato
Greek philosopher; knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophers ruled
Rosalie Rayner
Rosalie Rayner
graduate student of Watson and co-researcher for the famous Little Albert demonstration of classically conditioned emotion
Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
B. F. Skinner
B. F. Skinner
behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism’s reinforcement history; worked with pigeons One of the Mac Daddy’s of Behavorism.
Socrates
Socrates
Greek philosopher; socratic method–questioning; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens youth
E. B. Tictchner
E. B. Tictchner
Introduced experimental psychology to the United States
Margaret Floyd Washburn
Margaret Floyd Washburn
Was the first female PhD in psychology
John B. Watson
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt
german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
Introspection
Introspection
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
Gestalt Psychology
Gestalt Psychology
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
SQ3R method
SQ3R method
is a student-directed approach in which students are taught five steps for studying content-area and expository texts: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, & Review.