Unit 1 questions

Unit 1 questions

Which of the following is not a principle of our democracy?
A. Majority rule
B.Complete freedom
C.Minority rights
D.Equality of opportunity
B.Complete freedom
Which of the following is an important principle of American democracy?
A.Popular sovereignty
B.Majority rule/minority rights
C.Limited government
D.All of the above are important principles of American democracy.
D.All of the above are important principles of American democracy.
The famous political scientist Harold Lasswell defined politics as the struggle over
A.who gets elected.
B.who gets what, when, and how.
C.who protests.
D.who gets to vote.
B.who gets what, when, and how.
The U.S. definition of liberty refers to
A.personal freedom only.
B.economic liberty only.
C.personal and economic freedom.
D.political and religious freedom.
C.personal and economic freedom.
How much do Americans know about their government?
A.A lot
B.Some
C.Very little
C.Very little
Which of the following is not related to the American conception of “liberty”?
A.Freedom of speech
B.Free enterprise
C.Freedom of religion
D.All of the above are related to liberty.
D.All of the above are related to liberty.
According to the ancient Greeks, a citizen was
A.any free male who was at least 18 years old.
B.anyone who was knowledgeable of and actively participated in government.
C.anyone born of Greek parents.
D.anyone who votes.
B.anyone who was knowledgeable of and actively participated in government.
The bourgeoisie in Europe sought to
A.open up political participation to all social classes.
B.restore the divine right of kings.
C.turn institutions—especially parliaments—into instruments of real political participation for the middle class.
D.overthrow parliaments.
C.turn institutions—especially parliaments—into instruments of real political participation for the middle class.
Many of the conflicts in American politics today revolve around
A.the proper scope of government.
B.whether government should exist at all.
C.allowing minorities to participate in government.
D.consolidating the three branches of the military into one.
A.the proper scope of government.
The principle of political equality can be best summed up as
A.”equality of results.”
B.”equality of opportunity.”
C.”one person, one vote.”
D.”equality between the sexes.”
C.”one person, one vote.”
Laissez-faire capitalism has been limited by
A.public opinion, which opposes capitalism.
B.voluntary actions by big businesses.
C.government regulation.
D.papal encyclicals.
C.government regulation.
Which of the following statements describes America’s growing population since its founding?
A.More Americans trace their roots to Europe today than ever before.
B.African Americans now make up a much smaller percentage of the total population.
C.The percentage of the American population that identifies itself as Protestants has been on the rise.
D.The number of elderly Americans has grown, and the number of children eighteen and under has declined.
D.The number of elderly Americans has grown, and the number of children eighteen and under has declined.
The framers of the Constitution stipulated that the number of representatives in the House of Representatives “shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand” constituents, but today the average member of Congress represents approximately how many people?
A.150,000
B.500,000
C.650,000
D.750,000
C.650,000
What kind of government do we have?
A.Direct democracy
B.Republic
C.Totalitarian
D.Authoritarian
B.Republic
Which is a key American value in our political culture?
A.Liberty
B.Equality
C.Democracy
D.All of these are American values.
D.All of these are American values.
The bourgeoisie championed
A.democracy.
B.”taxation without representation.”
C.limitations on government power.
D.societal revolution.
C.limitations on government power.
A system of rule in which the government seeks to impose its will by suppressing any and all other groups and individuals in society that might pose a challenge to its power is called
A.direct democracy.
B.autocratic.
C.oligarchic.
D.totalitarian.
D.totalitarian.
Which of the following is not part of the U.S. political culture?
A.Belief in equality of results
B.Belief in equality of opportunity
C.Belief in individual liberty
D.Belief in free competition
A.Belief in equality of results
The institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled are called its
A.economy.
B.legislature.
C.politics.
D.government.
D.government.
Some states allow ballot referenda or popular initiatives, which are forms of
A.representative democracy.
B.totalitarianism.
C.direct democracy.
D.monarchy.
C.direct democracy.
A student council is an example of
A.direct democracy.
B.representative democracy.
C.limited democracy.
D.an oligarchy.
B.representative democracy.
According to your textbook, why are knowledgeable citizens more engaged in politics?
A.Because they read the newspaper
B.Because they understand how politics affects their lives
C.Because they enjoy working for political campaigns
D.None of the above
B.Because they understand how politics affects their lives
According to the authors of the textbook, good citizenship requires
A.political knowledge.
B.political engagement.
C.a good education.
D.both a and b.
D.both a and b.
In which of the following activities will a typical college student feel the presence of their state government?
A.Waking up to standard time
B.Reading the nutrition labels on his or her cereal
C.Taking American Government 101
D.Surfing the Internet
C.Taking American Government 101
In a democracy, sovereignty is vested in
A.the president.
B.the federal government.
C.the people.
D.Congress.
C.the people.
Throughout U.S. history, Americans have
A.supported strong government.
B.been suspicious of strong government.
C.moved from suspicion of government to enthusiastic support for government.
D.moved from a belief in no government to a belief in strong government.
B.been suspicious of strong government.
The United States’ core political values are
A.liberty and responsibility.
B.liberty, equality, and minority rights.
C.liberty, equality, and democracy.
D.liberty, democracy, and capitalism.
C.liberty, equality, and democracy.
The United States’ first written constitution was
A.the U.S. Constitution.
B.the Declaration of Independence.
C.the League of States.
D.the Articles of Confederation
D.the Articles of Confederation
In the Revolutionary struggles, which of the following groups was allied with the New England merchants?
A.Artisans
B.Southern planters
C.Western speculators
D.Laborers
B.Southern planters
The Constitution’s framers placed ____________ ahead of all other political values.
A.individual liberty
B.democracy
C.equality
D.civil rights
A.individual liberty
Where was the execution of laws conducted under the Articles of Confederation?
A.The presidency
B.The Congress
C.The states
D.The expanding federal bureaucracy
C.The states
Which state’s proposal embodied a principle of representing states in the Congress according to their size and wealth?
A.Connecticut
B.Maryland
C.New Jersey
D.Virginia
D.Virginia
Antifederalists wanted
A.to stay a British colony.
B.a more decentralized government.
C.more power in the hands of the national government.
D.the right to spit in their opponents’ faces.
B.a more decentralized government.
Which of the following statements is true about the Three-fifths Compromise?
A.It settled the question of how many senators each state would get.
B.It created a system to elect the president of the United States.
C.Under this compromise, five slaves would count as three free persons in apportioning seats in the House of Representatives.
D.Only three-fifths of all slaves were allowed to vote in national elections.
C.Under this compromise, five slaves would count as three free persons in apportioning
The first governing document in the United States was
A.the Declaration of Independence.
B.the Constitution.
C.the Articles of Confederation.
D.None of the above
C.the Articles of Confederation.
Which of the following concepts best explains the underlying reason for the Bill of Rights?
A.Checks and balances
B.Separation of powers
C.Limited government
D.Rule by government
C.Limited government
The Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation were not sufficient to hold the new nation together as an independent and effective nation-state. Which of the following statements is false?
A.The central government under the Articles of Confederation was powerless to intervene to resolve trade, economic, and political disputes among the states.
B.Many of the pre- and postrevolutionary radicals, small farmers, artisans, and shopkeepers wanted a strong national government to protect their economic interests.
C.Many of the pre-revolutionary colonial elite favored a stronger national government to protect their economic interests.
D.Competition among the states for foreign commerce allowed the European powers to play the states against one another.
B.Many of the pre- and postrevolutionary radicals, small farmers, artisans, and shopkeepers wanted a strong national
How did the British attempt to raise revenue in the North American colonies?
A.Income tax
B.Taxes on commerce
C.Expropriation and government sale of land
D.Government asset sales
B.Taxes on commerce
Under the original, unamended Constitution, the only person(s) elected directly by the people was/were
A.the president.
B.senators.
C.Supreme Court judges.
D.members of the House of Representatives.
D.members of the House of Representatives.
According to your textbook, which of the following statements best articulates the motives of the framers at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia?
A.The United States’ framers were a collection of securities speculators and property owners whose main aim was self-interest and personal gain.
B.The framers’ interests were reinforced by their principles.
C.The framers were primarily interested in philosophical and ethical principles.
D.The framers were most concerned about the expansion of democracy to all new Americans.
B.The framers’ interests were reinforced by their principles.
The power of judicial review
A.allows the Senate to confirm presidential judicial appointments.
B.is defined in Article III of the U.S. Constitution.
C.was assumed by the Supreme Court.
D.was declared unconstitutional by Chief Justice John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison.
C.was assumed by the Supreme Court.
Which of the following was not a reason that the Articles of Confederation seemed too weak?
A.The lack of a single voice in international affairs
B.The power of radical forces in the Congress
C.The impending “tyranny of the states”
D.The power of radical forces in several states
C.The impending “tyranny of the states”
An important issue dividing Federalists and Antifederalists was the threat of tyranny, meaning
A.generally, unjust rule by the group in power.
B.from the Antifederalists’ perspective, the fear of an aristocracy.
C.from the Federalists’ perspective, rule by the passions of the majority.
D.All of the above
D.All of the above
An amendment to the U.S. Constitution may be proposed in which of the following ways?
A.A majority vote in both houses of Congress and the president’s signature
B.A two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress
C.A majority vote in both houses of Congress and a ruling by the Supreme Court that the measure is constitutional
D.A constitutional convention called by one-half of the state legislatures
B.A two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress
The Three-fifths Compromise dealt primarily with what issue?
A.A slave would count as three-fifths of a person when determining population.
B.Three-fifths of the states had to ratify the current constitution.
C.It now takes a three-fifths vote in Congress to propose constitutional amendments.
A.A slave would count as three-fifths of a person when determining population.
Most of the seventeen Constitutional amendments ratified since the Bill of Rights in 1791 have been directly or indirectly concerned with
A.due process of law.
B.equal protection of the law.
C.structure or composition of government.
D.civil liberties.
C.structure or composition of government.
Connecticut Compromise provided for which of the following?
A.A House of Representatives apportioned by the number of free inhabitants and a Senate consisting of two members from each state selected by state legislatures
B.A House of Representatives apportioned by the number of free inhabitants plus three-fifths of the slaves and a Senate consisting of two members from each state directly elected by the people
C.A House of Representatives apportioned by the number of free inhabitants plus three-fifths of the slaves and a Senate consisting of two members from each state selected by the state legislatures
D.A bicameral legislature in which both houses would be apportioned according to the number of free inhabitants plus three-fifths of the slaves
C.A House of Representatives apportioned by the number of free inhabitants plus three-fifths of the slaves and a Senate consisting of two members from each state selected by the state legislatures
Under the Great Compromise, small states were given an advantage in the
A.Senate.
B.House of Representatives.
C.electoral college.
D.Supreme Court.
A.Senate.
Prior to the twentieth century, most governments relied on ____________ for revenue.
A.tariffs, duties, and other taxes on commerce
B.local sales taxes
C.a national sales tax
D.a personal income tax
A.tariffs, duties, and other taxes on commerce
Shays’s Rebellion was significant in that it
A.demonstrated the weakness of government under the Articles of Confederation.
B.represents the first major battle of the Civil War.
C.led to renewed fighting between the colonists and the British.
D.was the last battle in the Revolutionary War.
A.demonstrated the weakness of government under the Articles of Confederation.
______________ is a system of government in which power is divided by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments.
A.A confederation
B.Separation of powers
C.A monarchy
D.Federalism
D.Federalism
Between 1789 and 1996, more than 11,000 amendments were formally offered in Congress. Of these, only ____________ were finally ratified by the states.
A.500
B.100
C.50
D.27
D.27
When was our current constitution written?
A.1776
B.1787
C.1812
D.1920
B.1787
___________ is a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national governments.
A.A constitution
B.A confederation
C.Federalism
D.Separation of powers
B.A confederation
The amendment route to social change
A.is, and always will be, extremely limited.
B.is frequently followed.
C.is hard, but has been used over fifty times in American history.
D.has never been used in America.
A.is, and always will be, extremely limited.
What mechanism was instituted in the Congress to guard against “excessive democracy”?
A.Bicameralism
B.Staggered Senate terms
C.Appointment of senators for long terms
D.All of the above
D.All of the above
In general, it was the ____________ vision of the United States that triumphed.
A.Federalist
B.Antifederalist
C.Jeffersonian
D.Washingtonian
A.Federalist
The Virginia Plan was favored by
A.small states, since it emphasized the importance of population.
B.large states, since it emphasized the importance of size and wealth.
C.small states, since it treated all states equally.
D.slave states, since it allowed slaves to be counted toward the population of the states.
B.large states, since it emphasized the importance of size and wealth.
Which of the following statements is true about the Constitutional ratification process?
A.Ratification of the Constitution was a speedy and uncontroversial process.
B.The Constitution was ratified in state legislatures.
C.The struggle for ratification was carried out in thirteen separate campaigns.
D.The so-called Federalists opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
C.The struggle for ratification was carried out in thirteen separate campaigns.
The First Continental Congress met in 1774. Which of the following actions did the delegates at the Congress take?
A.They declared independence from Great Britain.
B.They called for a total boycott of British goods.
C.They elected George Washington as General of the Colonial Army.
D.They wrote the pamphlet Common Sense, which argued for independence from British rule.
B.They called for a total boycott of British goods.
McCulloch v. Maryland is an important case because
A.the Court interpreted the delegated powers of Congress broadly, creating the potential for increased national powers.
B.the Court gave a restricted definition of Congress’s delegated powers, in keeping with the era of dual federalism.
C.the Court announced that dual federalism did not conform to the framers’ intent.
D.this case began the era of dual federalism.
A.the Court interpreted the delegated powers of Congress broadly, creating the potential for increased national powers.
What is the purpose of the Tenth Amendment?
A.To give each state constitution the same protections as the federal constitution
B.To limit the powers of the central government by establishing reserved powers for states and individuals
C.To grant to the citizens of each state access to the federal court system
D.To establish the electoral college
B.To limit the powers of the central government by establishing reserved powers for states and individuals
One benefit of having a federal system is that
A.states can act as laboratories of democracy.
B.states have different needs and concerns.
C.it gives state and local governments more flexibility to handle problems.
D.All of these are benefits of federalism.
D.All of these are benefits of federalism.
Over the course of American history, the federal government has _______ compared with state government.
A.grown stronger
B.grown weaker
C.remained the same
D.grown in tandem
A.grown stronger
In contrast to __________ federalism that defined America until the 1930s, since the New Deal, ____________ federalism has prevailed.
A.dual; cooperative
B.dual; layer-cake
C.cooperative; dual
D.cooperative; new
A.dual; cooperative
Which of the following statements is not true?
A.For most of U.S. history, the national government was quite small by comparison both to state governments and to the governments of other Western nations.
B.For most of U.S. history, virtually all of the functions of the national government were aimed at assisting commerce.
C.For most of U.S. history, virtually none of the national government’s policies directly coerced citizens.
D.For most of U.S. history, the national government followed a strict interpretation of interstate commerce.
D.For most of U.S. history, the national government followed a strict interpretation of interstate commerce.
Regulations or new conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the national government is the definition of
A.preemption.
B.unfunded mandates.
C.fiscal federalism.
D.dual federalism.
B.unfunded mandates.
The Constitution specifically grants Congress the power to do all of the following except
A.borrow money.
B.lay and collect taxes.
C.declare war.
D.charter a national bank.
D.charter a national bank.
Gibbons v. Ogden in 1824 was important because it
A.gave the national government significant new authority to regulate interstate commerce.
B.established the principle of judicial review.
C.declared that interstate commerce was to be regulated by state governments.
D.established the principle of no fees on exports.
A.gave the national government significant new authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Which of the following best exemplifies the doctrine of preemption?
A.Welfare reform, which preempts states from giving benefits to some residents
B.Federal criminalization of marijuana, even when states or cities allow medicinal use
C.Federal regulations in which the cost is borne by the states
D.Federal and state governments sharing the cost of a new highway
B.Federal criminalization of marijuana, even when states or cities allow medicinal use
The Supreme Court ruling in United States v. Lopez is important because
A.it was the first time since the New Deal that the Supreme Court limited the power of Congress under the commerce clause.
B.it was the first time that the Court had ever used the Tenth Amendment to limit the power of Congress.
C.the Court found that citizens could not bring racial discrimination suits against state governments.
D.the court found the line-item veto to be unconstitutional.
A.it was the first time since the New Deal that the Supreme Court limited the power of Congress under the commerce clause.
States’ rights advocates argue that
A.state governments’ rights are subordinate to national government policies.
B.the elastic clause allows for expansion of states’ rights.
C.only the national government can amend the U.S. Constitution.
D.states do not have to submit to national laws when they believe the national government exceeds its authority.
D.states do not have to submit to national laws when they believe the national government exceeds its authority.
The era of “New Federalism” began in the
A.1950s.
B.1960s.
C.1970s.
D.1980s.
C.1970s.
The division of powers and functions between the national government and state governments is the definition of
A.confederation.
B.intergovernmental relations.
C.expressed powers.
D.federalism.
D.federalism.
Which president is best known for his attempts to return power to the states?
A.Richard Nixon
B.George W. Bush
C.Jimmy Carter
D.Harry Truman
A.Richard Nixon
Most of the rules and regulations Americans face in their daily lives are set by
A.state and local governments.
B.the federal government.
C.regulatory commissions.
D.the U.S. Supreme Court.
A.state and local governments.
The New Deal of the 1930s signaled the rise of
A.a less active national government.
B.a more active national government.
C.unfunded mandates.
D.revenue sharing.
B.a more active national government.
Which provision allows cities a guarantee of noninterference in various local affairs by state governments?
A.Home rule
B.Referendum
C.Initiative
D.Merit system
A.Home rule
Over what current issue has the “full faith and credit” clause become embroiled in controversy?
A.Medical marijuana
B.Death penalty
C.Same-sex marriage
D.Food safety
C.Same-sex marriage
Specific powers provided to the national government in the U.S. Constitution are called ____________ powers.
A.expressed
B.reserved
C.concurrent
D.defined
A.expressed
By the year 1932, ____________ percent of the U.S. workforce was unemployed.
A.10
B.15
C.20
D.25
D.25
Which of the following is a “traditional” area of national government responsibility?
A.Defense
B.Social Security
C.Welfare
D.FEMA
A.Defense
The process of transferring more responsibilities of governing from the national level to the state level is known as
A.preemption.
B.full faith and commerce.
C.devolution.
D.dual federalism.
C.devolution.
Which of the following statements best captures the meaning of the concept of devolution of authority?
A.State governments have given the federal government more of their powers over time.
B.State governments have devolved to the point where they exercise little power in the federal system.
C.City governments are now the premier power brokers in national politics.
D.The national government grants the states more authority over a range of policies.
D.The national government grants the states more authority over a range of policies.
Which of the following best represents a unitary system of government?
A.The national government selects the textbooks and curriculum for all schools.
B.The national government establishes general guidelines for school policy.
C.The national government gives vouchers to parents for use in private schools.
D.The national government makes funding for schools dependent on test scores.
A.The national government selects the textbooks and curriculum for all schools.
Especially since the New Deal in the 1930s, ____________ has/have played a much more prominent role in protecting liberty and promoting equality.
A.the national government
B.state governments
C.county governments
D.city governments
A.the national government
During the course of American history, the federal government has _______ compared with the states.
A.grown stronger
B.grown weaker
C.remained the same
D.grown in tandem
A.grown stronger
Which type of grant provides more control to state and local governments in the distribution of federal grants-in-aid?
A.Formula
B.Project
C.Categorical
D.Block
D.Block
For three-quarters of American history, ____________ has/have done most of the fundamental governing.
A.state governments
B.local governments
C.the national government
D.the people directly
A.state governments
Implied powers or the necessary and proper clause allows
A.state governments to nullify national government laws.
B.the national government to interpret its delegated powers expansively.
C.judicial review.
D.the national government to reserve powers to state governments.
B.the national government to interpret its delegated powers expansively.
Which of the following statements best captures the meaning of the concept of regulated federalism?
A.State governments regulate how much personal income tax revenue they send to the national government.
B.In recent years the national government has created a large number of regulatory commissions primarily to monitor the policy performance of state governments.
C.The national government sets standards of conduct or requires the states to set standards that meet national guidelines.
D.The states act as watchdogs and regulate federal government grants-in-aid.
C.The national government sets standards of conduct or requires the states to set standards that meet national guidelines.
What is a grant-in-aid?
A.Money provided by cities to state governments
B.Money appropriated by the national Congress to state and local governments
C.The major source of revenue for the national government
D.What the Department of War uses to fund military operations
B.Money appropriated by the national Congress to state and local governments
Which level of government is not addressed in the Constitution?
A.The national government
B.The states
C.Cities
D.All of these are addressed in the Constitution.
C.Cities
The power to declare war is an example of which type of power?
A.Reserved
B.Implied
C.Concurrent
D.Expressed
D.Expressed