Unit 2 US History Study Guide

French and Indian War
French and Native Americans
vs.
British and Colonists
Causes: Rivalry between French/British; English/colonists want to move inland (French land)
Proclamation line of 1763
Kept the colonists from moving West past the Appalachian mountains; hated by the colonists
Stamp Act
Result of French and Indian War; tax on all printed paper
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Sugar Act
tax on sugar, molasses, and lumber
Townshend Acts
a new way to tax the colonies to pay the governors, judges, and army
Sons of Liberty
group of unskilled workers who boycotted British goods and protested the British acts
Boston Massacre
British soldiers were taking low class workers’ jobs and they threw snowballs and rocks at them. Someone yelled fire and the British killed 5 colonists and injured 1. Major Propaganda
Boston Tea party
dressed as Indians and dumped 3 million $ of tea into the harbor
Samuel Adams was in charge
Intolerable Acts
result of the Boston tea party (closed Boston harbor/no committees allowed)
1st continental congress
1. each colony could have a militia- untrained, reserve army
2. stockpiling of guns and ammo

Result: King George III sent Gage to take back ammo- Battles of Lexington and Concord

2nd continental congress
response to the battles of Lexington and Concord
Formation of an army (official, not militia)
olive Branch petition- peace treaty to king George
Battle of Bunker Hill (breed’s hill)
fight for control of Boston
British victory- heavy casualties, colonists success at head to head battle
Inalienable Rights
Rights set forth in the Declaration of Independence. John Locke came up with the rights and they were life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Loyalists
Some middle colonies and Southern colonies besides Virginia
Farmers
Government officials should be through the crown
supported the British
Patriots
New England (Mass., Conn., RI NH)
Virginia
Urban population- merchants
wanted independence from Britain
Battle of Saratoga
colonists won
Result: Alliance with France, British stopped fighting battles in the West
Valley Forge
The colonists’ second winter, it was very cold and they didn’t have resources or supplies. Many soldiers deserted. There was a lot of death, hypothermia, and illness. Washington stayed with his troops and gave them morale
Yorktown
British General- Cornwallis
American General- G.W.
French defeated British navy and blockaded Chesapeake Bay
British soldiers were in Yorktown on the Peninsula
Colonial army blocks the British from leaving the peninsula by land
Cornwallis surrendered
Articles of Confederation
strengths:
– est. national policies
– borrow and coin money
– create an army
– declare war
weaknesses:
– no trade control
– couldn’t tax
– no executive power
– majority of states needed to do anything
– no court system
– no enforcement of laws
Shay’s Rebellion
There was inflation so the colonists could not pay taxes. Western Massachusetts revolted, took over courthouse
showed that there needs to be a strong national power
Constitutional Convention
large states vs. small states
southern vs. northern
states rights vs. national rights
Virginia Plan
3 branches of government
legislative- bicameral
based on population of states
New Jersey Plan
unicameral house
equal representation
favored small states
Checks and balances
Make sure no one branch has too much power
Bill of Rights
Protected colonists’ rights
1-9: individual rights
10: states rights vs. federal rights
concurrent power
to make and impose laws
tax
Connecticut Compromise
the great compromise
3 branches of government
bicameral
house based on equal representation and then a house based on population

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