| UNIT 4222- 264 THE PRINCIPLES OF INFECTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL | | | | | | | | | |We as health care assistants, such senior health carer , we all have different kinds of roles and | | | | |responsibilities that we have to follow.
We have to always be aware of and report changes in the health |264 |1 |1 | |conditions of the individuals that we support. We also have a responsibility to assist with keeping work areas, and| | | | |equipment clean, tidy and free from infection hazards.
We are also encouraged to maintain good personal hygiene for | | | | |ourselves as well as our service users. For example, helping service users bath, use the toilet and change remove and| | | | |dispose of any soiled clothing. Another responsibility we hold is preparing and maintaining environment before and | | | | |after episodes of patient care. | | | |Following “Health and Safety Legislation” our employer like other employers must: | | | | |- write and communicate a health and safety policy, including an infection control policy | | | | |- carry out risk assessments to assess infection hazards and risks and ensure that, where possible, infection risks | | | | |are eliminated | | | | |- provide equipment which is safe and properly maintained | | | | |- make sure there are safe systems of work and adequate supervision |264 |1 |2 | |- make sure safety procedures are followed | | | | |- provide a safe working environment | | | |- provide employees with adequate information, training and supervision necessary to ensure their health and safety | | | | |at work | | | | |- provide and maintain any necessary Personal Protective Clothing (PPE), equipment and safety devices free of charge | | | | |-provide adequate welfare facilities to allow employees to maintain good levels of personal hygiene (i. e. proper | | | | |toilet and washing facilities). | | | | | | | | | |Current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and infection control are: | | | | |- The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 | | | | |-The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984.
Provides information on the legal requirements for the reporting | | | | |of contagious or infectious diseases | | | | |- Food Safety Act 1990. The requirements of this act apply to any area where food is prepared, stored or eaten. | | | | |Control is required to ensure that the risks of any infection, as a result of bad handling of food, are minimised. | | | | |- Food Hygiene Regulations 1995. These regulations also require that employees who handle food as part of their | | | | |normal duties should also undertake specific food hygiene training. | | | |- Reporting Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995. The employer or manager in control |264 |2 |1 | |of work premises has a responsibility under RIDDOR to report any work related accidents or disease which result in | | | | |serious injury or an employee being “off sick” due to injury for more than three working days. | | | | |- The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1998. | | | | |Describe the reporting systems and the types of disease which must be reported. | | | |- Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. Requires all staff to be provided with adequate and | | | | |appropriate training and a set of working instructions demonstrating ‘safe working practices’ for work related | | | | |activities. | | | | |- Controls Assurance Standards – HSC 2000/02. This standard provides a framework to control and manage infection. | | | | |In our care home are required to ensure effective protection and to minimise the risk of healthcare associated | | | | |infections.
Effective prevention and control must be applied consistently by everyone and all staff must demonstrate | | | | |good infection control and hygiene practice. Roles and responsibilities of members of staff in the organisations are:| | | | |personal hygiene requirements, when and how to use personal protective equipment’s, decontaminating equipment, safe | | | | |handling and disposal of clinical waste, managing blood and bodily fluids products and spills, maintaining a clean | | | | |environment, cleaning routines and requirements, how to record and report accidents and incidents. | | | | | | | | |Procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and infection control are: | | | | |-cleaning is a process that removes foreign material from an object. Cleaning is normally accomplished by the use of | | | | |water, mechanical action and detergents. It may be manual or mechanical, using ultrasonic cleaners or | | | | |washer/disinfectors that may facilitate cleaning and decontamination of some items and reduce the need for handling. | | | | |-disinfection is a process that reduces the number of pathogenic icroorganisms from objects or skin, to a level | | | | |which is not harmful to health. Disinfection can be carried out by either thermal or chemical processes. Thermal | | | | |disinfection is preferred whenever possible. It is generally more reliable than chemical processes, leaves no | | | | |residues, is more easily controlled and is non-toxic. | | | | |-decontamination of equipment and the environment is a process which removes or destroys microorganisms to render an | | | | |object safe for use.
It includes cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation. |264 |2 |2 | |-sterilisation is a process that destroys all microorganisms including bacterial spores. Sterilisation is | | | | |accomplished principally by steam under pressure (autoclaving), dry heat, by ethylene oxide gas or low temperature | | | | |steam and formaldehyde. | | | | |The outbreak of an infection within a care home can have serious consequences for people who come into contact with | | | | |contaminated person and also for the entire organization.
An individual who acquire an infection will require medical| | | | |treatment or antibiotic therapy, if the individual does not take medical treatment it may be risk of spread of the | | | | |infection in that entire care home. Some infections may require the patient to be isolated from others to help | | | | |prevent and control the spread of infections, for example infection chest. | | | | | | | | | |In my opinion risk is the probability that an event will occur.
We can say that: a person may be at risk when there | | | | |is the chance to be injured, to cause harm, to become infected of a desease or something that can put your life in |264 |3 |1 | |danger. A hazard can cause harm or adverse effects to individuals as health effects or to organizations as property | | | | |or equipment losses. | | | | | | | | | |Me like care worker, I can be exposed to various potential infection within the workplace. These include the most | | | | |common infections like: colds, flu, diarrhoea, vomiting.
We, carers assistants often come into contact with clients | | | | |blood and body fluids, which can cause greater infections risks and may include also the risk of acquiring hepatitis | | | | |or HIV, scabies ,this last one can be spread by touch. | | | | |We are also exposed to infections spread through the air, such as tuberculosis and swine flu, ,this are quite rare. | | | | |Other airborne infections such as streptococcal infections are more common and can lead to sore throats and raised | | | | |temperature. | | | | |A a care worker, I can be a source o infection to the people I provide care for, because these people are at an | | | | |increased risk of acquiring an infection.
In this cause I must to take precautions to minimize the risk of cross | | | | |infection. | | | | |Even if I only have a common cold, I must to check my care home ‘s sickness policy and to inform my manager if I am | | | | |sick . | | | | |The process of carrying out a risk assessment content 5 steps: | | | | |Step 1 Identify the hazards | | | | |Step 2 Decide who might be harmed and how | | | |Step 3 Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions | | | | |Step 4 Record findings and implement them | | | | |Step 5 Review assessment and update if necessary |264 |3 |2 | |A risk assessment is one of the most important assessments. The measures put in place to reduce the potential harm | | | | |from these risks, for example ensuring adequate PPE is available for staff to use. | | | |Under the “ Health and Safety at Work Act 1974”, all employers have a legal responsibility to protect the health and | | | | |safety of their employees and anyone else using the work place, in care homes this would include clients, friends and| | | | |family. The risk assessment is one of the most important assessment an employer can undertake to protect these people| | | | |as well as their organisation’s reputation. The assessment identifies the risks in the workplace and the measures | | | | |put in place to reduce the potential harm from these risks, ex. ensuring adequate PPE is available for staff to use. | | | |Failure to undertake a risk assessment is illegal because put at risk the health and safety of all people who is |264 |4 |1 | |inside of care home, especially the most vulnerable, the residents who are living there and about we are providing | | | | |care for. | | | | | | | | | |Personal protective equipment (PPE) is used by us, health care assistants to protect us and also the people who | | | | |receive care from harm, to protect our skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and mouth from exposure to blood | | | | |or other potentially infectious body fluids or materials and to avoid contact. All PPE should be removed when |264 |4 |2 | |leaving the resident care area. | | | |The different types of PPE used in care health are: | | | | |- Uniform – is important to wear the uniform only at work place to reduce the risk of infections. The uniform should | | | | |be clean every day and should be changed if become soiled. | | | | |-Gloves – prevent gross contamination of the hands when touching body fluids; reduce the likelihood that | | | | |microorganisms present on the hands of personnel will be transmitted to an individual during invasive or other | | | | |individual care procedures.
Gloves may have small, unapparent defects or may be torn during use, and hands can become| | | | |contaminated during removal of gloves hand hygiene is essential before donning another pair of gloves. | | | | |- Aprons – protect the uniform from becoming soiled during wound care or toileting the resident. Should be placed | | | | |over the uniform before activities involving body fluids. Blue aprons when feeding a resident, white aprons for | | | | |toileting, bath and wound care. | | | | |- Masks – should be used when microorganisms might be present in the air.
Visors can be attached to provide full face| | | | |protection; | | | | |-Goggles – protect eyes; | | | | |-Hats |264 |4 |3 | |-Visors | | | | |-Face shields – protect face, mouth, nose and eyes; | | | |- Shoes – every employer require a type and colour of shoes. The shoes must be comfortable and do not have high heels| | | | |or opened toe. | | | | |Any PPE equipment used must be handled correctly to be efficient. Before to use any PPE equipment we need to wash | | | | |properly our hands. | | | | |Important key points about PPE:-done before contact with the client,-use carefully , don’t spread the | | | | |infection,-remove and discard carefully, and immediately wash your hands properly. | | | |Gloves -we must used them from “clean to dirty” |264 |4 |4 | |-limit opportunities for” touch contamination”, protect us, others and | | | | |the environment | | | | |-don’t touch our faces or adjust PPE with contaminated gloves | | | | |-don’t touch environment surfaces except as necessary during client | | | | |care | | | | |-change gloves during use if torn and heavily soiled, even during use on | | | | |the same client; | | | | |-discard in appropriate receptacle, never wash or reuse disposable | | | | |gloves. | | | | |Under Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, it is made clear that if items of PPE are required, then they must be | | | | |provided free by the employer. Under same Act, are specific regulations which specifically address PPE, this are: | | | |-Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulation 2002 | | | | |-Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 |264 |5 |3 | |-Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002(COSHH) | | | | |The responsibility regarding the use of PPE is in section 7 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and impose all| | | | |care workers to take responsible care for their own health and safety and that of others who may be affected by their| | | | |acts or omissions at work, in our case ,our residential clients. | | | |The important responsibilities include: | | | | |-attending training provided by the employer relating to how to use PPE | | | | |-using PPE in accordance with training |264 |5 |2 | |-taking responsible care of all PPE provided by the employer | | | | |-returning PPE to the correct storage accommodation provided for it after use | | | | |- reporting to the employer any loss or obvious defect as soon as possible. | | | | |Under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, employers have the responsibility to ensure, as far as possible the | | | | |health, safety and welfare at work.
Employers have a duty of care under the Personal Protective Equipment at Work | | | | |Regulations 2002: | | | | |-properly assessing the need for PPE and assessing PPE before it is used to ensure it is suitable | | | | |-providing free PPE to employees | | | | |-ensuring PPE are maintained and stored properly | | | | |-providing employees with adequate information, instruction and/or training on its use. | | | | |-ensuring employees follow the training provide and that they use the PPE provided. | | | |When removing its recommended to avoid touching as much is possible to reduce the risk of transferring pathogenic | | | | |organisms. Washing should be at a temperature at least 60 degree and separately from other cloths. Gloves should be | | | | |applied on clean, dry hands and ensure there are no holes and tears and is the correct size. When remove gloves grab | | | | |the cuff one glove with the opposite hand, while still holding the removed glove pull of the second by holding the | | | | |cuff and pulling down over hand, dispose gloves and wash hands.
Aprons should be applied over uniform and after use | | | | |removed carefully do not touching the front of the apron. The apron will end up securely enclosed in the gloves and | | | | |disposed. Masks should be removed by untying the bottom tie then the top tie and moving it away from face by holding | | | | |the ties, after dispose it. Visors should be removed sliding the visor up and away from face. Should be cleaned and |264 |5 |1 | |decontaminated as appropriate and then dried. Shoes should be cleaned and decontaminated as required. | | | |Masks, hats, gloves and aprons are classed as clinical wastes are regarded as high risk items. They must be disposed | | | | |carefully to reduce the risk of cross infection. When removing PPE avoid touching the contaminated surface, remove | | | | |the items before moving to the next resident, place the items in the correct waste containers ready for collection, | | | | |decontaminate equipment such as visors and return them to their correct storage accommodation, inform manager if any | | | | |PPE is damaged or stock levels are low. | | | | | | | | | | | | | |As a care assistant I’m a model and need to set a good example because I have a vital role to play in the prevention | | | | |and control of infection and this start with my own personal hygiene, daily body hygiene, baths or showers, washing | | | | |hands when appropriate, keep clean hair and tied up if is long, wear clean cloths, uniform, clean nails and | | | | |well-trimmed free from polish, remove jewellery except small earrings and wedding ring. | | | |Hand-washing is the single most important aspect of prevention and control of infection and nevertheless the most | | | | |neglected practice. A good hand washing reduce the risk of cross infection and also can significantly reduce the | | | | |presence of pathogenic organisms on the hands. | | | | |As well, an effective hand washing technique aims to remove dirt, organic material and pathogenic organisms such as | | | | |those found in blood, faeces and respiratory secretions like expectoration. |264 |5 |4 | |After we washed our hands, it’s very important as well to dry them with absorbent disposable paper towels. | | | |The correct sequence for hand washing is: | | | | |I Rub palm to palm | | | | |II Rub palm over back of hand, fingers interlaced | | | | |III Palm to palm fingers interlaced | | | | |IV Fingers interlocked into palm |264 |5 |5 | |V Rotational rubbing of thumb clasped into palm | | | | |VI Rotational rubbing of clasped fingers into palm. | | | |Hand washing should be carried out: | | | | |-before putting on a clean uniform or PPE, | | | | |-before any aseptic procedure, | | | | |-after resident contact, | | | | |-after removing PPE, | | | | |-after using the toilet, | | | | |-before eating, handling food, | | | | |-after finishing work. | | | |The types of products should be used for hand washing: |264 |5 |6 | |- General hand washing soap used for routine hand wash has minimal ability to destroy microorganisms and is useful to| | | | |remove dirt, grease and loosely adhered microorganisms. | | | | |- Disinfectant hand wash is commonly used in clinical areas for clinical purposes. | | | | |-Surgical scrub solutions- used for antiseptic procedures, these solutions can lead to dry skin and irritations. | | | | |- Alcohol gel used where sinks and soap is unavailable immediately after contact with patient. | | | |Correct procedures that relate to skin care are: maintaining healthy skin, maintaining body hygiene, apply | | | | |moisturising cream, do not use a substance unless it is identified, always read the label on a product before use it,| | | | |wear the correct gloves for the task and as instructed, never wear gloves which are torn or share gloves with another| | | | |person, wash hands after removing gloves, report immediately to the manager any: skin irritation or puncture wounds, | | | | |cuts or abrasions which occur at work and obtain first aid if necessary, cover cuts and wounds with a waterproof | | | | |self-adhesive plaster when at work and change it at least daily. | | | | |264 |5 |7 | | | | | | |Sources: | | | | | | | | | |http://www. wales. nhs. uk/sites3/Documents/739/RCN%20infection%20control. doc. pdf | | | | |http://www. markedbyteachers. com/as-and-a-level/healthcare/describe-the-roles-and-responsibilities-of-staff-in-relatio| | | | |n-to-infection-prevention-and-control-in-a-health-or-social-care-workplace. tml | | | | |-“Health and Social Care Level 2 Diploma” – book | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |