Unit 5 Review AP World History 1750 to 1914

Unit 5 Review AP World History 1750 to 1914

Louise XVI
Louis XVI was the last king of France (1774-92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte was the older brother of Napoleon I, who made him King of Spain 1808-1813.
Otto von Bismarck (Otto Eduard Leopold )
Otto von Bismarck, was a German statesman who unified numerous German states into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership, then created a “balance of power” that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914.
Karl Marx
Revolutionary, sociologist, historian, and economist Karl Marx published The Communist Manifesto, the most celebrated pamphlet in the history of socialism.
Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin is best known for his work as a naturalist, developing a theory of evolution to explain biological change
Toussaint Louverture
Toussaint l’Ouverture was a leader of the Haitian independence movement during the French Revolution.
Simon Bolivar
Simón Bolívar was a Venezuelan military leader who was instrumental, along with José de San Martín, in setting Latin America free from the Spanish Empire.
Jose De San Martin
1778 -1850, was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America’s successful struggle for independence from Spain.
Selim III
He was the reform-minded Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807. The Janissaries eventually deposed and imprisoned him, and placed his cousin Mustafa on the throne as Mustafa IV. Selim was finally assassinated., Sultan who ruled Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807; aimed at improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy; toppled by Janissaries in 1807
Muhammad Ali
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)
Cixi
Ultraconservative empress in Qing (Manchu) dynasty China. Ruled china in the turbulent late 19th century, not as a true Empress but as an Empress Dowager.
Bolsheviks
Violent, radical wing of the Social Democrats in Russia, led by Vladimir Lenin; took power from provisional government; later renamed “Communists.”
Menelik II
Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia. In the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their independence.
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States
Hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; said ‘Speak softly but carry a big stick’ (1858-1919)
Porfilio Diaz
Porfirio Díaz was a soldier and president of Mexico who is best known for establishing a strong centralized state during his term.
George Washington
1st President of the United States
EX. commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
American Revolution
Period when 13 colonies gained independence from England. Based on disapproval by colonists of several taxes and other unpopular laws. Protests lead to fighting in 1775, and after two main British armies were captured in 1777 and 1781 and an alliance of the colonists with the French, the Treaty of Paris was signed.
Population Revolution
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
French Revolution
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon’s overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Brazilian Revolution
the revolution in effort to remove the status of colony from Brazil’s name. Their independence was won in a bloodless battle: a petition that was signed by many citizens of Brazil.
Haitian Revolution
Toussaint l’Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world’s second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
South American Revolution
The breaking apart of the Spanish empires that started in Paraguay in 1811. Revolt allowed because of french revolution
Simon Bolivar – Ven, Col, Ecu
Jose de San Martin – Arg, Chile
in 1824 all of south america is independent
American Civil War
Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.
Boer Wars
Wars between the Dutch and British in Africa. A sort of cold war between the two powers. The Dutch wanted slavery but the English didn’t
Mexican-American War
Manifest Destiny in action. The belief that America had a God-given right, or destiny, to expand the country’s borders from ‘sea to shining sea’. This belief would eventually cause a great deal of suffering for many Mexicans, Native Americans and United States citizens.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million. February 2 1848
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government’s refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Taiping Rebellion
The most destructive civil war in China before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. Leader claimed to be the brother of Jesus.
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the “foreign devils”. The rebellion was ended by British Troops.
Crimean War
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
Russo-Japanese War
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia’s refusal to withdraw its troops from Mancharia after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
Declaration of the Rights of Men
This declaration is based on certain truths. All men are meant to be equal and to have certain rights (“unalienable rights”) that the government should never take away. These rights include “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Guillotine – Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
EX. “the Reign of the Bourbons ended and the Reign of Terror began”
Nationalism
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
Conservation
Holding to traditional attitudes and values and cautious about change or innovation, typically in politics or religion.
Liberals
Supporters of the democratic party. Favorable to or in accord with concepts of maximum individual freedom possible, especially as guaranteed by law and secured by governmental protection of civil liberties.
Radicals
In the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people
Feminism
the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.
Triple Alliance
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Triple Entente
Alliance between France, Great Britain and Russia signed this agreement that meant that if one of these countries were to be attacked by neighboring countries, the other two would help defend their country. Wanted to stop Germany’s growing of power. Prior to WWI.
Sepoys
Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India.
Settlement Colonies
Areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants.
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea,” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Tanzimat Reformation
The Tanzimât reform era was the attempt to modernize the Ottoman Empire, to secure its territorial integrity against nationalist movements and aggressive powers. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire, attempting to stem the tide of nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire. The reforms attempted to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the Empire.
Qing Dynasty
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during the Qing dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu
Holy Alliance
A loose alliance of European powers pledged to uphold the principles of the Christian religion. It was proclaimed at the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) by the emperors of Austria and Russia and the king of Prussia and was joined by most other European monarchs, Alliance among RUssia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe.
Anarchist
A person who believes in or tries to bring about anarchy; Absence of government and absolute freedom of the individual, regarded as a political ideal.
Urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Mercantilism
The economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism, an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests
Capitalism
An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state