US Health Care Chapter 9

US Health Care Chapter 9

Long-term care is best described as:

A. home-based care for physically disabled adults and children.

B. hospital stays lasting more than 30 days.

C. services provided in both home and institutional settings for persons of all ages with varying levels of medical, social, and personal care needs.

D. community-based services for frail older adults.

The US history of institutional long-term care began with:

A. family-based care for the sick and infirm in their own homes.

B. communal care settings operated by charitable community members and government supported almshouses.

C. state-supported asylums.

D. military hospitals to care for wounded and sick soldiers.

Which of the following societal factors increases the need for formal long-term care services?

A. women working outside the home

B. high divorce rates

C. smaller family size

D. all of the above

The development of formal home care services, such as those provided by the Visiting Nurses Association originated as:

A. a means to get urban children immunized against infectious diseases.

B. a service to the wealthy who wished to receive care in their homes, rather than institutions.

C. a social response intended to improve unhealthy living conditions of immigrants residing in crowded urban tenements and prevent the spread of infectious diseases.

D. local health departments’ response to the needs of older adults living alone.

Long-term care and nursing-home reform legislation of the 1970s occurred as a response to which of the following:

A. widespread media reports and ensuing Congressional hearings on nursing home and residential care facility abuses and negligence

B. inadequate reimbursement for appropriate care in institutional settings

C. national recognition of inadequate quality assurance and monitoring systems in the long-term care industry

D. A and C

The major distinction between skilled-nursing and residential care facilities is that skilled nursing facilities:

A. provide care in both community and institutional settings.

B. provide care primarily for people requiring intensive nursing, rehabilitation, or related services.

C. typically accommodate relatively self-sufficient residents.

D. primarily provide at-home care.

Which of the following was not a driver of expanded home care services during the 1980s through the 1990s?

A. Assertions by increased numbers of older persons of their desire to remain in their own homes for care, whenever possible.

B. audits documenting significant fraud and abuse of Medicare billing.

C. Decreased availability of informal care-givers available to assist their family members

D. The Olmstead Supreme Court decision upholding the right of citizens to receive care in the community

Which of the following best describes the informal long-term care system?

A. group living facilities where residents may come and go as they please

B. care and assistance provided in the home by family members and friends

C. adult day care facilities

D. assistance with activities of daily living from a home care agency

Respite care is best defined as:

A. services that temporarily relieve informal caregivers through assistance in the home or through institutional placement on a temporary basis.

B. legally required “rest periods” for caregivers of dependent family members by which employers are required to give paid leaves of absence.

C. temporary, Medicaid-supported vacations for caregivers of a physically or mentally-dependent family member.

D. permanent patient placement in a residential care facility.

The enactment of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965 affected the long-term care industry in many ways. Which of the following was NOT an effect of the Medicare and Medicaid enactment on the long-term care industry?

A. Provision of more stable reimbursement sources than previously available from private pay and charitable sources

B. Prohibition of for-profit providers’ participation in Medicare and Medicaid long-term care reimbursement

C. Establishment of minimal standards of care to qualify for Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement

D. Provision of resources for older and disabled Americans and those lacking the ability to pay for care

The hospice movement is concerned with care for terminally ill patients. Which of the following is not a major goal of hospice care?

A. decreasing costs of care for the terminally ill by avoiding use of expensive technology

B. providing an alternative to the curative/intervention approach of medical care for the terminally ill

C. providing state-of-the-art pain relief interventions while supporting the patient and his/her family through the life-death transition

D. supporting terminally ill patients’ sense of independence throughout their dying process

The “naturally occurring retirement community” is best defined as

A. a federally-designated geographic area with a high proportion of older Americans.

B. groups of federally-funded senior services centers in a defined geographic area that offer congregate meals and social activities.

C. apartment complexes, neighborhoods, or sections of communities where residents have opted to age-in-place.

D. a not-for-profit organization-operated campus of facilities and services for Medicare beneficiaries.