US History 1 CLEP

The Line of Demarcation
The line by the Pope to dived the world in half. Giving one half to Spain and the other the Portugal. The Spanish convinced to Pope to do this because both countries wanted to colonize but Portugal was the super power of the sea.
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 agreement between portugal and spain, moving the Line of Demarcation farther west.
Henry Clay
Engineered the Missouri Compromise
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The Missouri Compromise of 1820
This maintained the balance of slave and free states by bringing in Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. It sought to diffuse slavery as an issue in westward expansion by prohibiting slavery north of latitude 36°30′, but it said nothing about popular sovereignty south of that line.
“We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”
Was said by?
Thomas Jefferson, following the heated elections of 1800.
The Treaty of Paris 1783 (four main parts)
Britain recognizes independence of the U.S.; boundaries of the new nation are established; American ships are given unlimited fishing rights; creditors of either side would be unimpeded in the collection of lawful debts; the U.S. would compensate loyalists whose property had been confiscated
Freeport Doctrine
In a Douglas vs. Lincoln debate, this was Stephen Douglas’s said that slavery could be prevented from any territory by the refusal of the people living in that territory to pass laws favorable to slavery. Likewise, if the people of the territory supported slavery, legislation would provide for its continued existence. He didn’t want to go against the Supreme Court and say it couldn’t be continued into the territories but he also didn’t want to anger southerners.
The Triangular Trade
The pattern of trade that connected Europe, Africa, Asia, and the American continents. They traded rum,slaves, sugar, and tobacco .
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses Grant at…
The Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865
The Judiciary Act of 1789
Congress provided for a Supreme Court of six members and a system of lower district courts and courts of appeal, also giving the Supreme Court the power to make the final decisions in cases involving the constitution or state laws.
Alexander Hamilton’s Legislative Program
Promoted the Bank of the United States, assumption of Confederation and state debts, excise taxes, and manufacturing
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. It forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established.
The Specie Circular of 1836
An executive order issued by U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1836 and carried out by President Martin Van Buren. It required payment for government land to be in gold and silver.
Anne Bradstreet
The first published american poet
Phillis Wheatley
The first African American poet to be published.
Virginia House of Burgesses
The first lawmaking body in the English colonies
Massachusetts General Court
Passed the first set of laws in the English colonies.
King Philip’s War
A conflict between New England colonists and Native American Groups allied under leadership Wampanoag cheif Metacom, known to the colonists as King Philip.
Royal Colonies
Colonies that were under the direct control of the English crown
Proprietary Colonies
Colonies owned by persons who had been given a royal charter to own the land
Charter Colonies
Colonies based on a grant of land by the British Crown to a company or a group of settlers
Mercantilism
The theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys
Salutary Neglect
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
The Stamp Act
A tax, passed in March 22,1765; on documents and printed items such as wills, newspapers, and cards.
Declaratory Act
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
The Intolerable Acts
A series of laws passed 1774 by British Parliament to punish the people of Boston following the Boston Tea Party
The Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 – Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
The Townshend Acts
Laws passed in 1767 that taxed imported goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
The Homestead Act
Passed in 1862 – The law offered 160 acres of land free for anyone who agreed to live on and improve the land for 5 years- only $10 fee
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
It would create 2 new territories to allow the government to build a railroad. It split Nebraska into the territories of Nebraska and Kansas and allowed for popular sovereignty there, thus nullifying the Missouri Compromise.
Benjamin Rush
Patriot and doctor; signer of the Declaration of Independence and strong supporter of the Constitution. He was the first to diagnose insanity as an illness and wrote curriculum for course in psychiatry.
Tenure of Office Act
Required the president to secure consent of the Senate before removing appointees once they had been approved
Copperheads
This was a group Northern Democrats who wanted Lincoln to negotiate peace with the South. They were so named because they identified themselves by showing the head of the copper penny.
The Trent Affair
-2 Confederate diplomats slipped through the Union blockade near Cuba, where they boarded an English steamer, the Trent, set for England.
-The American frigate stopped the English vessel without authorization, arrested the diplomats, and carried them back to Boston.
-As a result, the British government demanded the release of the prisoners, reparations, and an apology.
Ostend Manifesto
A document drafted by three proslavery diplomats in support of buying Cuba from Spain to expand the United States’ slave territory
Stephen A Douglas
Politician from illinois who supported popular sovereignty and basically destroyed his political career with the freeport doctrine. Strongly supported the compromise of 1850. Engineered different coalitions to pass each part of the compromise separately.
The Free Soil Party
Organized in 1848, this third party proposed the exclude slavery from federal territories and nominated former President Van Buren in the election that year. Most became Republicans.
The Know Nothing Party
Supported natural-born American opportunities and opposed immigration. When asked about the party they would say “I know nothing.”
Hudson River School
A well-known group of landscape painters in the first half of the nineteenth century.
_____ was “The great equalizer” in American society
Public Schools
Dorothea Dix
New England teacher and author who was a pioneer in the movement for better treatment of the mentally ill
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper “The Liberator”, and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Horace Mann
Campaigned for public schools
Sojourner Truth
A former slave and a abolitionist speaker
Walt Whitmen
Considered the quintessential American “common man”
James Fenimore Cooper
The first American novelist to use American themes
Romanticism
A movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
Transcendentalism
The Belief that every person possesses an inner light that can illuminate truth and connect on to God
Maria Mitchell
An astronomer who discovered a comet and was the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Embargo Act of 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade.
Roger Williams
Started Rhode Island
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
The first written constitution in America. It provided for a Representative Government.
The Act of Religious Toleration
Made to protect the Catholic minority in Maryland for which the colony was established.
King William’s War
The first of the four wars fought between France, Spain, England and France’s indian allies for control of North America. No major battles fought or major land change but brought terrifying indian raids.
Queen Anne’s War
The second of the four wars fought between France, Spain, England and France’s indian allies for control of North America.It ended with Britten gaining much land and trading rights.
King George’s War
The third War fought between Britain and France and Spain. It took place not only in Europe but also in North America with American colonists supporting the British with thousands of troops. In the end, Britain gained lands in India but lost Louisburg, which embittered the American colonists relations with the Mother Country .
Vasco Nunez de Dalboa
The first European to see the Pacific
Jaun Ponce de Leon
Wanted gold and fountain of youth, made first spanish settlement in america. He explored and established his settlement in Florida.
John Cabot
Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland looking for the NW Passage. Gave England a claim in North America.
Giovanni da Verrazzano
An Italian explorer in the service of France. In 1524, he sailed to North America in search of the NW Passage
Francis Drake
A very successful privateer in the service of England. Sailed around the world.
John White
Roanoke’s colony leader who returned to England for more food and tools–when he finally returned to Roanoke the colony had vanished.
John Smith
Kept the Virginia colony from collapsing by laying down the law. “If you do not work, you do not eat.”
Henry Hudson
Looked for a NW Passage for Holand
William Bradford
Leader of the Pilgrims
John Winthrop
Leader of the Puritan group that started Massachusetts. He became the Governor.
The Whig Party
This party wanted expanding power of the federal government, encouraged industrial and commercial development, and was cautious about westward expansion because they feared it would produce instability. It encouraged rising to commercial and manufacturing power and was found favorable to the merchants and manufacturers of the Northeast, the wealthy planters of the South, and the farmers of the West. This party also attracted Evangelical Protestants.
The Federalist Party
The Federalist policies called for a national bank, tariffs, and good relations with Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794. (The only Federalist president was John Adams)
Republican-Democratic Party
political party that believed the people should have political power, favored strong state governments, emphasized agriculture, favored strict interpretation of the constitution, were pro-French, opposed national bank. Led by Jefferson and Madison.

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