US history 1302 Exam 1

US history 1302 Exam 1

Lincoln’s Reconstruction
A plan that offered reinstatement for Southern states as long as 10% of the state swore allegiance to the Union. This was created in an attempt to create a moderate peace plan that wouldn’t upset the South.
Thirteenth Amendment
Abolished slavery
Freedmen’s Bureau
1865 – Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Presidential Reconstruction
was the President’s idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
“Black Codes”
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
Radical Republicans
After presidential reconstruction, it was good for former slaves but its replaced later on. The death of reconstruction
Civil Rights Act (1866)
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
Fourteenth Amendment
A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians.
Sharecropping
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Carpetbaggers
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Fifteenth Amendment
1870 constitutional amendment that guaranteed voting rights regardless of race or previous condition of servitude
Centennial Exposition (1876)
Held in Philadelphia 1876, celebrate 100th anniversary of Declaration of Independence, focus on machinery and inventions
Vertical and Horizontal Integration
beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition); vertical- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen – Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental)
Great Uprising (1877)
Railroad workers on strike sparked The Great Uprising of 1877. The strike was due mainly in part to the economic downturn beginning in 1873. This eventually led railroad companies to lower wages causing uproar and inducing the 1877 Uprisings.
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories; replaced by AF of L after a botched protest
Haymarket Square Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hours, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Collective Bargaining
Process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract
Great Migration
(WW) , movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
New Middle Class
middle-income workers whose earnings come from knowledge-based services, such as professions, rather than form ownership of physical capital
Federal Indian Policy (broadly speaking)
This policy is the way in which the Indian Tribes have been managed by the United States Government. This policy has changed over the many years and includes Indian relocation, allotment and assimilation.
Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
An attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members. Showed increasing violence in treatment of Native Americans
Sioux Wars
lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians. The Sioux Indians wre led by Sitting Bull and they were pushed by Custer’s forces. Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Many of the Indian were finally forced into Canada, where they were forced by starvation to surrender.
Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876)
(Custer’s Last Stand) battle between Lakota and Northern Cheyenne, led by Sitting Bull, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the US Army; Indians won
The Nez Perce
The federal government attempted to force them onto a reservation because they found gold there
Bureau of Indian Affairs
A government agency created in the 1800s to oversee federal policy toward Native Americans
Ghost Dances
A religious movement that arose in the late nineteenth century under the prophet Wavoka, a Paiute Indian. It involved a set of dances and rites that its followers believed would cause white men to disappear and restore lands to the Native Americans. The Ghost Dance religion was outlawed by the U.S. government, and army intervention to stop it led to the Wounded Knee Massacre.
Wounded Knee (1890)
Location of the shooting by army troops of over 300 group of captured, unarmed Sioux in their attempt to end the Ghost Dance; last major battle between the US army and the Indians
“Solid South”
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
Industrial South
New South
Southern Democrats
Supported Slavery, used intimidation and manipulation to hold down Populist votes
Redeemers
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to “redeem” the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
Jim Crow
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Poll Tax
A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Literacy Tests
Method used to deny African-Americans the vote in the South that tested a person’s ability to read and write – they were done very unfairly so even though most African-Americans could read and write by the 1950’s they still failed.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896
Upheld the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in private businesses (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of “separate but equal”.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
Increased the amount of silver the gov. baught for coinage, but the money supply did not increase enough to satisfy silver supporters
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Populism (People’s Party)
political movement to increase the political power of farmers and to work for legislation for farmers’ interests; added factory workers to get more support
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate “yellow (sensationalist) journalism.”
U.S.S. Maine
“start” of the Span-Amer war; exploded off the coast of cuba and it was blamed on spanish torpedoes; heightened by yellow journalists
Spanish-American War (1898)
Conflict between the U.S. and Spain that began the rise of the U.S. as a world power. The U.S. gained possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines as a result.
1st Voulunteer Cavalry (Rough Riders)
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
10th U.S. Cavalry Buffalo (Soldiers)
Nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s
Lost cause
southerners who lost, to try to make them feel better
To what extent was Reconstruction a failure? How was it a success? In your answer, be sure to explain in
detail the political and social issues that shaped the era between 1865 and 1877.
Ups and downs of reconstruction, black codes, bureau, it succedes 1860’s
Explain the promise and problems associated with the “Gilded Age.” Focus your essay on economic and
labor issues in the era.
Promise- big corporations pop boom
Problems- Child labor immigration,
Discuss the causes, course, and consequences of the Indian Wars between 1864 and 1890
start with sand creek massacre, how does it lead, custer, nez perce war, geronimo apache, wounded knee
How did monetary issues and foreign war between in the last two decades of the nineteenth century help
shape the foundations of modern American politics and diplomacy