US History Chapter 1-3

Columbian Exchange
the transfer of animals, plants, culture, diseases, technology and ideas between the New World and Old World as a result of Christopher Columbus’ discovery
Spanish Armada
The navy of Spain; defeated by the British in 1588
Joint-stock company
a business entity where different investors buy stocks in a colony and share the profits
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Virginia Company of London
the joint-stock company that funded Jamestown and Plymouth
Jamestown
the first successful English settlement in the Americas
Plymouth Plantation
New England settlement; settled by Seperatists and strangers
Captain John Smith
military leader of the Jamestown settlement who enabled the colony to be successful
starving winter
the term for the terrible winter that the Jamestown settlement endured in 1609-1610
John Rolfe
settler in Jamestown who introduced growing tabacco and who married Pocohantas
Headright system
grant of land, usually 50 acres, given to settlers who paid for their way to Virginia
Powhatan
the leader of the Native American
Confederation of the tribes in Virginia
Pocahontas
daughter of Powhatan, credited for saving John Smith’s life during the early years of the Jamestown settlement
Miles Standish
military adviser at Plymouth Plantation; considered a stranger
Massachusetts Bay Colony
A colony in New England settled by Puritans in order to worship as they believed
Royal colony
a colony whose leadership is chosen by and report to the king or queen
William Penn
the founder of Pennsylvania who founded PA in order to give Quakers and others a place to worship freely
John Winthrop
the Puritan leader of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Anne Hutchinson
disagreed with the theology of the Puritans and was banished from MA Bay Colony
Roger Williams
the founder of Providence, Rhode Island after leaving the MA Bay Colony
King Philip’s War
a war between Native Americans and colonists in the late 1600s as the Native Americans sought to push out the English from their lands
Triangular Trade
Trade between Africa, Americas, and Europe involving raw materials, goods, and slaves
Jonathan Edwards
New England preacher who was a large part of the Great Awakening
Great Awakening
a movement within Protestant churches during the mid-1700s during which many people converted to Christianity

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