US History Chapter 1 Test

First Civilization in the Americas
Olmec People
First Civilizations in modern US
Hohokam
Anasazi
One of the largest first cities
Cathokia
Mississippian
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Southeast Native Americans
Cherokee
Southwest Native Americans
Zuni
Apache
Navajo
Great Plains Native Americans
Sioux
Northwest Native Americans
Kwakiutls
California Native Americans
Pomo
Alaska to Greenland Native Americans
Inuit
Columbus
1492
Nina Pinta Santa Maria
Landed on San Salvador
Explored the Caribbean
Amerigo Vespucci
Portuguese
Explored South America
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494
Confirmed Spains right to most of the newly discovered lands
Hernan Cortez
Spanish
Defeated Aztec in Mexico in 1521
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish
Conquered the Inca in Peru
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish
Claimed Florida
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Spanish
Explored Southwest
Hernando de Soto
Spanish
Explored Southeast
Native American Contributions
Corn, potato, squash
New farming methods
European Contributions to Native Americans
Horses, wheat, domestic livestock
Diseases
John Cabot
English
Explored North America
Jacques Cartier
French
Explored North America
Giovanni da Verrazano
French
Explored North America
Quebec
Founded in 1608 by French Samuel de Champlain
Became capital of New France
French Exploration America
Reached Mississippi river
Reached the Gulf of Mexico
Founded Louisiana and New Orleans
Jamestown
First colony in America
English
Joint-Stock Company
Powhatan Confederacy
A group of local Native Americans who helped Jamestown
First House of Representatives
House of Burgesses
1619
Pilgrims
1620
Mayflower
Cape Cod
Befriened Wampanoag people
Mayflower Compact
Self-government set up for the pilgrims
Roger Williams
Banned from Massachusetts
Founded Providence
Government had no authority in religious matters
Anne Hutchinson
Settled with others near providence
Rhode Island
Founded in 1644
Made up by Providence and neighboring cities
Religious Freedom
Total separation of religion and state
New Hampshire
1679
Royal Colony
Religious Dissenters
Reverend Thomas Hooker
Moved his entire congregation to the Connecticut River Valley
Disagreed with the idea that only church members could vote
Connecticut
Founded by Reverend Thomas Hooker
1636
First written constitution
Allowed all men to vote and hold office
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Americas first constitution
Subsistence Farming
Raising crops only to feed the family
Popular in New England
Thriving businesses in New England
Fishing
Lumber Industry
Ship making
King Phillips War
1675-1678
Named after Wampanoag leader
Henry Hudson
Discovered Hudson River Valley in New York
Dutch
New Netherland
Seized by Charles II
New York
Named after the Duke of York
Controlled by the Duke of York
New Jersey
Released by the Duke of York
Offered generous land grants
religious freedom
the right to have a legislative assembly
William Penn
With permission from King Charles founded Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Founded by William Penn
Holy Experiment
Religious Freedom
Voice in government
Quakers
Objected to obligatory taxes and military service
Delaware
Bought by William Penn from Native Americans
Middle Colonies
Fertile land
long growing season
Maryland
Proprietary Colony
Leader was George Calvert
Proprietary Colony
Owned by an individual who can govern as he pleases
Lord Baltimore
George Calvert
Leader of Maryland
Toleration Act
Maryland
Granted toleration to Catholics
Carolinas
Land given to friends by the King
Soon were split over divided interests
Georgia
Founded by James Oglethorpe
A colony where the poor could start over
Sir William Berkeley
Dominated Virginias leadership
Refused to support war with the Native Americans
Nathaniel Bacon
Organized a militia to attack the Native Americans
Challenged Berkeley with a civil war
Died in swamp
Bacons Rebellion
Civil War against Berkeley’s power
Fell apart after Bacon suddenly died
Slave Trade
Hard to do until in 1672 the king approved it
Population from 1640-1700
25,000-250,000
Population by the Revolutionary War
2.5 million
Two largest cities by the Revolutionary War
New York: 25,000
Philadelphia: 30,000
Slave Population
10-20% of the urban population
540,000
20% of the colonial population
Reasons Europeans came to the Colonies
Taxes, religious persecution, poor harvests
Women before the Revolutionary War
Married could not own property, make contracts or wills, and had a hard time divorcing
Single women had more freedoms
Slave Trade
10-12 million were enslaved
2 million died on their way
500,000 went to British North America
Slave Codes
Laws for Slaves
Kept African slaves from owning property, testifying against whites in court, receiving an education, moving about freely, or meeting in large groups
Navigaton Acts of 1660
Required all goods shipped to and from the colonies to be carried on English Ships
Products that earned profit could only be sold to England
Staple Act
Required all colonial imports to come through England
Dominion of New England
King Charles
Included Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connection, New Jersey and New York
Led by Sir Edmund Andros
Glorious Revolution
King James II kicked of the throne
His daughter and husband took over
Had to sign English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights
1689
Monarchs could not suspend Parliaments laws
Could not create their own courts
Could not impose taxes
Could not raise an army
Guaranteed freedom of speech among Parliament
Banned excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment
Guaranteed every English subject right to an impartial jury
William and Marry
Permitted Rhode Island and Connecticut to resume their governments
Issued a new charter for Massachusetts granting the right to assemble and freedom of worship
John Locke
Two Treatises of Government
Natural Rights
Essay on Human Understanding
People were not born sinful, instead their minds were blank slates that society and education could shape for the better
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Social Contract
Argued that a government should be formed by the consent of the people
Baron Montesquieu
The Spirit of Laws
Suggested that there were three types of political power: executive, legislative, and judicial
Great Awakening
Born again emotionally with God
Widespread resurgence of religious fervor
Height around 1740
Baptism
Gained a strong following among poor farmers
Welcomed enslaved Africans
Condemned the brutality of slavery
French and Indian War
1754-1759
French and Indians vs Britain
Won by Britain
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Declared Britain the dominate power in North America
Declared the empire included all of New France east of the Mississippi and Florida
Proclamation Act of 1763
Tried to halt colonial expansion into Native American lands
The king did not want another costly war
Customs Duties
Taxes on imports and exports
Sugar Act of 1764
Raised taxes on imports of raw sugar and molasses
Quartering Act of 1765
Obligated colonists to provide shelter for British troops
Stamp Act of 1765
Required Stamps to be bought and placed on most printed material
Sons of Liberty
Organized protests and tried to intimidate stamp distributors
Stamp Act Congress
Issued Declaration of Rights and Grievances arguing that they needed representation for taxation
British in 1766 repealed the Stamp Act
Townshend Acts
Put new custom duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported into the colony
Also gave custom officers new powers to arrest smugglers
Boston Massacre
British troops opened fire on a crowd of protesting colonists during a commotion
Weeks later British repealed multiple acts and laws
Committees of Correspondence
Thought of by Thomas Jefferson
Way for colonists communicate with one another and coordinate strategy
Tea Act
Created favorable business terms for the British East India Company
Multiple ports blocked off the harbor to Tea imports
Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
Dumped imported tea into the harbor
Coercive Acts
To punish Boston
Shut down Boston’s port
Others banned town meetings and expanded the powers of the royally appointed governor
Quebec Act
Extended Quebec’s boundaries to include Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, India, and Wisconsin
Intolerable Acts
Coercive and Quebec Act
First Continental Congress
Met on September 5th in response to the Intolerable acts
55 delegates
All colonies except Georgia
Approved a plan to boycott British goods
John Hancock
Leader of the Continental Congress
Lexington/Concord
First battle of the Revolutionary War
Where General Gage sent men to seize arms and ammunition
70 minutemen had a short battle with them
Paul Revere
When they arrived at Concord, most of the military supplies were gone
They were then surrounded in Boston
George Washington
Named General and Commanded in Chief of the Continental Army which included the militia around Boston
First President
Olive Branch Petition
July 1775
Colonists appeal to the King that they still wanted to seak a truce and were willing to stay under his control in terms of an agreement
Rejected
Thomas Paine
Common Sense
Argued that the King, and not parliament, was responsible for British actions against the colonies
Winter of 1776
Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware river and won two victories against the British in surprise attacks
Battle of Saratoga
Turning Point in the war
France decided to join the United States
Spain joined as an ally of France
Battle of Yorktown
Last battle of the war
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Britain recognizes USA
British kept Canada
Massachusetts and Virginia’s Constitutions
Separation of Powers
Three branches
Two assemblies
List of rights guaranteeing essential freedoms
Pennsylvania Constitution
Eliminated the position of governor
One house legislature appointed by the people
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
1786
Declared that Virginia no longer had an official church and that the state could not longer collect taxes to support churches
Articles of Confederation
Framework
A single congress
Each state had one vote
Could negotiate with other countries
Raise armies
Declare war
Could not deal with trade or taxes
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A plan for selling and then governing the new lands west of the Appalachian Mountains and north of the Ohio River
It also guaranteed certain rights, including Freedom of religion and freedom of slavery
Shays’s Rebellion
1200 followers of Daniel Shays protesting taxes
Constitutional Convention
Re-did the Articles of Confederation
Roger Sherman
Said that Congress would be split into two houses
One would represent the states
The other would represent the population
Great Compromise
Roger Sherman’s idea
Three-fifths Compromise
Slaves would count as 3/5 a person for counting for house of representatives
Popular Sovereignty
Rule by the people
Federalism
Power is divide between the federal government and the state government
Establishing Amendments
Two step plan
Proposal and ratification
Ratification
Required 9/13 states
First State
Delaware
Because they accepted the constitution first
Anti-federalists
Were not against federalists
Were scared of whether the state or federal government would be supreme
Wanted a Bill of Rights
The Federalist
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments of the constitution
Freedom of speech, press, religion, protection from unreasonable search,right to trial by jury, assembly
Virginia and the new Constitution
Barely agreed because of a promised Bill of Rights
New York
Mainly agreed because of they didn’t, they’d be a lone state surrounded by other united colonies
North Carolina and the new Constitution
Not until November of 1789
Rhode Island and the new Constitution
Not until May 1790

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