US History – Chapter 1

US History – Chapter 1

North America (culture during 1400s)
Housing/food/skills consisted for Pueblos; Adobe Houses and farming; Social Organization was the FAMILY; and religion and values involved the belief in SPIRITS and were guided by tradition.
West Africa (culture during 1400s)
lived in small villages; farming, herding, hunting, fishing, mining (salt) and trading were skills; social organization was the FAMILY / KINSHIP; and the religion was ISLAM
Islam
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah’s prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Europe (culture during 1400s)
lived in small villages; social hierarchy with monarchs and aristocrats; clergy ranked high in society; Christianity was the religion
Reformation
16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope’s authority
Hispaniola
the first European colonies of the New World were founded in Haiti and Dominica Republic. Founded by Christopher Columbus who was seeking a trade route to Asia. Home of the Tanio. Became the Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in the New World. Beginning of the Colombian Exchange trade route. Native Americans were devastated by disease. Spanish had to turn to been importing slaves to replace the Native Americans who were dying from diseases such as mumps, measles, smallpox and chickenpox.
Colombian Exchange
A global exchange of people, plants, animals, technology, and disease form Americas to Europe. Began by Christopher Columbus. Brought about a commercial revolution and mercantilism.
Mexico (Spanish Exploration of during 1400s)
became known as the “New Spain”; The Spanish marveled at the Aztec empire; came seeking gold and silver; Aztecs were dying from diseases such as mumps, measles, smallpox and chickenpox.
mestizo
A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry.
Hernando Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Montazuma
ruler of Aztecs, conquered by small fleet of Spanish men on horses, led by Cortes
encomiendos
Spanish settlers used these to demand taxes or labor from Native Americans
Tanio
People who lived in the west indies (Hispaniola) in villages who grew corn, yams, and cotton that was made into cloth. Columbus came to their land and stole it, he killed most of the population of the Tanio and he forced the rest on his boat to become his slaves.
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
John Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown
1607 – first permanent English settlement, Virginia, John Smith, tobacco, cash crop, starving time. The colony’s desire for more land resulted in a clash with the Native Americans. Started by a joint stock company called Virginia Company.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 – King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts bay area. The colony established political freedom and representative government. Governed by John Winthrop the first governor.
John Winthrop
1629 – He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders.
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled in Massachusetts Bay.
indentured servants
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts. For example, the shareholders of the Virginia Company, invested in the settlement of the colony of Jamestown.
Pennsylvania Colonies
1660 – settled by William Penn who was a Quaker
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
William Penn
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania (1660 – 1682) to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution. He believed that the land belonged to the Native Americans and he saw that they were paid for the land.
New Netherlands
1621 – colony started by the Dutch and included parts of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut. It was taken over by England in 1664. The colonists conducted fur trading with the Iroquois Indians.
North or New England Colonial Region
includes colonies in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island
Middle Colonial Region
includes colonies in New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey
South Colonial Region
includes colonies in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Maryland
Northern Colonies (characteristics)
economy relies on INDUSTRY (such as grinding wheat, harvesting fish, sawing lumber); Import/export/trade; farming results in several cash crops; attracted immigrants from Europe; less need for slave labor
Southern Colonies (characteristics)
economy relies on PLANTATIONS; farming results in SINGLE cash crops; attracted immigrants from England, Scotland and Germany; relied on slaves for labor
The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700’s and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God. Emphasized reason
The Great Awakening
exploded in the 1730s and 1740s and swept through the colonies; Started in Massachusetts by pastor Jonathan Edwards; puritans were required to practice religious and could no longer limit voting privileges of members of the church; emphasized emotionalism
Benjamin Franklin
American enlightenment figure who was a scientist and inventor
Jonathan Edwards
(1703-1758) Preached that it was not enough to just come to church. He played a critical role in shaping the Great Awakening and his sermon “In the Hands of an Angry God” is considered a classic piece of early American Literature.