US History Chapter 11

US History Chapter 11

Triple Alliance
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Triple Entente
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
self-determination
The ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I.
Allies
the powers of the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia), with the nations allied with them (Belgium, Serbia, Japan, Italy, etc., not including the United States), or, loosely, with all the nations (including the United States) allied or associated with them as opposed to the Central Powers
Central Powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
The British Blockade
As fighting on land continued, Britain began to make more use of its naval strength. It blockaded the German coast to pre- vent weapons and other military supplies from getting through. However, the British expanded the definition of contraband to include food. They also extended the blockade to neutral ports and mined the entire North Sea
Zimmerman Telegram
A coded message sent by Germany to try to get Mexico to attack the US
selective service
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
Army Nursing Corp
only position in which women went overseas
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
war bonds
Certificates sold by the United States government to pay for the war.
German U-boats
German submarines in WWI and WII which were most effective during naval blockade against enemy shipping, primary targets were from Canada, British empire and the US to Great Britain
convoy system
Protection of merchant ships from U-boat attacks by having ships travel in large groups escorted by warships.
Tanks and Airplanes
WW1 weapons
trench warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Alvin York
American war hero
armistice
A temporary peace agreement to end fighting.
National War Labor Board
A board that negotiated labor disputes and gave workers what they wanted to prevent strikes that would disrupt the war
Food Administration
Agency created to encourage farmers to produce more and to persuade the public to eat less; goal was to assure enough food was available for the troops; encourages “Wheatless Mondays, “Meatless Tuesdays” and “Porkless Thursdays.”
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people’s minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel’s organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
Espionage and Sedition Act
Two laws enacted to impose harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S participation in WW1
Eugene Debs
1855-1926. American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate.
Industrial Workers of the World
Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor’s interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.
W.E.B. Dubois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
– diplomacy, freedom of the seas, lower tariffs, reductions in armaments, decolonization, evacuate troops from Europe, self-determinat
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
“no man’s land”
Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous
doughboys
A nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI
nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country
militarism
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war