US History Chapter 12 – Reconstruction

US History Chapter 12 – Reconstruction

Andrew Johnson
became president as he was vice president at the time of President Abraham Lincoln’s assassination
Radical Reconstruction
covers the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the Civil War; the second sense focuses on the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress
Black Codes
laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans’ freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt
Radical Republicans
wing of the Republican Party organized around an uncompromising opposition to slavery before and during the Civil War and a vigorous campaign to secure rights for freed slaves during Reconstruction
Edwin Stanton
American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War
Carpetbaggers
political candidate who seeks election in an area where they have no local connections
Scalawags
person who behaves badly but in an amusingly mischievous rather than harmful way; a rascal
Horatio Seymour
American politician. He was the 18th Governor of New York from 1853 to 1854 and from 1863 to 1864
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th President of the United States. As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction, began the efforts that led to civil service reform
Samuel Tilden
25th Governor of New York and the Democratic candidate for the U.S. Presidency in the disputed election of 1876, winning a popular vote majority, but ultimately being denied victory by the electoral college
Tenure of Office Act
United States federal law (in force from 1867 to 1887) that was intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate. The law was enacted on March 3, 1867, over the veto of President Andrew Johnson
Freedmens Bureau
was established in 1865 by Congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the U.S. Civil War
Gerrymandering
manipulate the boundaries of (an electoral constituency) so as to favor one party or class.
Sharecropping
system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land
Wade Davis Bill
was a bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland
Whiskey Ring
was a scandal, exposed in 1875, involving diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors
13th Amendment
abolished slavery in the United States
14th Amendment
addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War
15th Amendment
prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen’s “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
Compromise of 1877
purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election, pulled federal troops out of state politics in the South, and ended the Reconstruction Era
Ku Klux Klan
secret organization of White Protestant Americans, mainly in the South, who use violence against Black people, Jewish people, and other minority groups
Civil Rights Act 1866
declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition
Impeachment
formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment
Election of 1868
first presidential election to take place after the American Civil War, during the period referred to as Reconstruction
Enforcement Act
three bills passed by the United States Congress between 1870 and 1871. They were criminal codes which protected African-Americans’ right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws
Jim Crow Laws
southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century
Election of 1872
incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant, leader of the Radical Republicans, was easily elected to a second term in office with Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts as his running mate, despite a split within the Republican Party
Poll Tax
a tax levied on every adult, without reference to income or resources.
Thaddeus Stevens
member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s
Hiram Revels
minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, a Republican politician, and college administrator. Born free in North Carolina, he later lived and worked in Ohio, where he voted before the Civil War