US History Chapter 3 Test

What effects did the Navigation Acts have on both Britain and its colonies?
Made money for both
Why did England take action against Massachusetts?
Colonists were smuggling goods
How did the colonies and Great Britain benefit from the policy of salutary neglect?
GB: cash kept coming without spending time supervising and working
Colonies: got wealthy and became more self-sufficent, got used to governing themselves
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How did the geography of the south contribute to the self-sufficiency of Southern plantations?
Good soil – easy to grow a lot of crops and be self-sufficent
Big, wide rivers – navigable deep into the south
Explain how colonial standards of living rose so dramatically in the 18th century?
-It was due to a large growth in the entire colonies
-Colonies were healthier with more fresh air and water and better living conditions
-From 1713 to 1774, tobacco exports there almost tripled and many Chesapeake farmers and merchants prospered
What roles did women play in the Southern households?
Mistresses, helped husbands run plantations, had some power but ultimately submissive to their husbands
Why were slaves used?
1) Native American labor force either died or ran off
2) Indentured servants stopped coming in enough numbers to fill the labor requirements
3) Slaves were expensive but a good investment because of chattel slavery
4) Since the colonists were white, they felt more superior to the blacks
Triangular Trade
The transatlantic trading system in which goods and people (slaves) were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America
(Began in 17th century)
Why weren’t slave owners punished if they killed their slaves?
Because they were property of the slave owners, and the owners could do whatever they wanted to with them
What type of industries developed in the north?
Grinding wheat, iron, lumber, fish, ships, fur
Salem Witchcraft Equation
Strict limitations on women +
Social Tensions between social classes +
Fears of Native Americans +
Religious Fanaticism =e French colony
Accusations of Witchcraft
How was the French colony in N.A. unlike the British colonies
less populated, less cities, better relationships with Indians
Mercantilism
a country’s ultimate goal was self-sufficiency and that all countries were in a competition to acquire the most gold and silver
Navigation Act
a series of laws restricting colonial trade; led to black market commerce and smuggling
i. No country could trade with the colonies unless the goods were shipped in either colonial or English ships
ii. All vessels had to be operated by crews that were at least three-quarters English or colonial
iii. The colonies could export certain products only to England
iv. Almost all goods traded between the colonies and Europe first had to pass through an English port
Salutary Neglect
England relaxed its enforcement of most regulations in return for the continued economic loyalty of the colonists; led to a governor appointed by the king serving nearly each colony
Middle Passage
The voyage that brought Africans to the West Indies and later to North America
i. Known as the Middle Passage because it was considered the middle leg of the triangular trade
ii. Cruelty characterized the journey
iii. European traders branded Africans and packed them into the dark holds of large ships
iv. Africans were beaten and whipped, and were struck with disease
Enlightenment
an 18th Century intellectual movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method as means of obtaining knowledge
Great Awakening
religious revival in the American colonies, lasting throughout the 1730s and 1740s
i. Brought many colonists, as well as Native Americans and African Americans, into organized Christian churches for the first time
ii. Challenged the authority of established churches
French and Indian War
French and Indians fought against the British; French are fighting with British for global dominance
Indians fought on how many sides?
two
Proclomation of 1763
1. The British did not want to waste/use the money (or the soldiers) to keep the Ohio River Valley safe for colonial settlers, so they made everything WEST of the Appalachian OFF LIMITS! No western settlement allowed
2. This made the colonists angry for three reasons:
a. They felt they had helped fight with the British against the Indians for that land
b. They needed to expand to the VERY fertile Ohio River Valley for economic reasons
c. The East Coast was getting crowded and the Colonists wanted to seek new opportunities to own land out “West”
Sugar Act
i. AKA – The Revenue Act of 1764
ii. Placed taxes on foreign sugar and certain luxuries
iii. Its chief purpose was to raise money for the King to pay off debt from the Seven Years’ War and to provide for stricter enforcement of the Navigation Acts to stop smuggling
Glorious Revolution
the transfer of British monarchy from James II to William and Mary in 1688-1689
Stono Rebellion
i. September (Sunday) in 1739
ii. About 20 slaves gathered at the Stono River southwest of Charles Town
iii. They had guns and other weapons and killed several planter families and marched south, beating drums and loudly inviting other slaves to join them in their plan to flee to Spanish-held Florida
iv. By late afternoon, they had been surrounded
v. Slaves were killed, and survivors were executed
vi. Wake-up call for Southern colonists
Cash Crop
A crop grown by a farmer for sale, rather than for personal use
i. Cash crops shipped in vast quantities
ii. Led to the development of plantations, rather than cities and towns
iii. Examples: Tobacco, cotton, sugar, indigo, hemp, and rice
Pontiac
Indian leader that led other Native Americans to capture 8 British Forts in the Ohio River Valley
Iroqois
Helped the British

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