US History Chapter 6

George Washington
the first president of the country under the new government
Steps taken by the Washington administration: – creating a judicial system -appointing a Cabinet
– establishing a national bank -moving the capital to D.C.
Judicial Act of 1789
established a federal court system that allowed state court decisions to be appealed to a federal court when constitutional issues were raised
Department of State
Executive department that deals with foreign affairs
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Department of War
Executive department that handles military matters
Department of Treasury
Executive department that manages finances
Cabinet
chief advisors to the president
Thomas Jefferson
appointed as Secretary of State by Washington. A strict constructionist
who wanted a weak central government. He believed that state government should be stronger.
He favored the agricultural South. He opposed the plan for a national bank
Henry Knox
President Washington’s Secretary of War
Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of Treasury under Washington. A loose/broad constructionist who
wanted a strong central government. He favored the industrial North and an economy that helped
trade and industry. Hamilton set up the Bank of the United States
Bank of the United States
set up by Hamilton, a bank funded by the federal government and wealthy
investors. The bank issued paper money and handled tax receipts and other government funds
James Madison
Along with Jefferson, Madison opposed the plan for a national bank because
he felt it would create an alliance between the government and wealthy business interests
agrarian
agricultural
laissez faire
no government intervention with business
two-party system
2 political parties competing in an election
Federalists
supporters of a strong central government
Democratic-Republicans
those who believed that the state government should be stronger than the federal government
protective tariff
tax on imported goods bringing more revenue to the federal government
excise tax
a sales tax placed on goods produced within the country
Whiskey Rebellion
Frontier farmers who produced the whiskey that was taxed, rebelled against the tax collectors
neutrality
foreign policy of not taking sides
Edmond Genet
French diplomat who tried to get American support despite Washington’s policy of neutrality
Thomas Pinckney
US Ambassador who worked with Spain to negotiate a treaty over land west of the Appalachian Mountains
Pinckney’s Treaty
Spain gave up its claims to land east of the Mississippi. This treaty opened up
the River to American traffic and American expansion west of the Appalachians
Northwest Territory
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin
Little Turtle
led Native Americans in defeating American troops over control over Ohio
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Americans defeated the Native Americans ending their resistance in Ohio
John Jay
US diplomat that negotiated a treaty with Britain over territory
Jay Treaty
British agree to give up their forts in the Northwest Territory, but the British continued to bother American ships in the Caribbean
XYZ Affair
3 French officials demanded bribes from the Americans in order to help them
President John Adams
settles the XYZ Affair with diplomacy, he avoids war with France
diplomacy
foreign policy of keeping peace among nations
sectionalism
placing the interests of one region over those of the nation as a whole
Alien and Sedition Acts
laws pushed through Congress by Adams and the Federalists to make it harder to become a citizen. It also created harsh punishments for people who criticized the government
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
refused to obey the Alien and Sedition Acts
nulification
states could refuse to obey federal laws that they believe are unconstitutional
USS Constitution
Navy ship built in 1797 under the presidency of John Adams
Presidential election of 1800
Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes. Jefferson and Aaron Burr, his running mate, receive the same number of electoral votes.Alexander Hamilton persuaded
the House of Representatives to vote for Thomas Jefferson
12th Amendment
amendment that called for electors to vote separately for president and vice-president
Jefferson Presidency
Thomas Jefferson believed the people should have greater control of the government.
Steps Jefferson took to limit the power of the central government:
1. He reduced the size of the federal army.
2. He rolled back Hamilton’s economic program by reducing the influence of the national bank
John Marshall
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by Adams
Judiciary Act of 1801
law that increased the number of justices on the Supreme Court to 16
midnight judges
Federalist judges appointed by President Adams on the last day of his administration
in order to pack the courts
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court ruled that the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional This decision established the principle of judicial review
judicial review
the Supreme Court has the right to declare a law unconstitutional
Louisiana Purchase
purchase made by Jefferson from France for land from the Mississippi to
the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the US
Lewis and Clark
explorers sent by Jefferson to explore new land
Sacajawea
Native American women who joined Lewis and Clark as a guide and interpreter
impressments
Britain seizing American sailors and forcing them to serve in the British navy
blockade
the sealing of enemy ports
embargo
ban on trading goods to other countries
General William Henry Harrison
governor of Illinois who persuaded Native American leaders to sign away millions of acres of land to the US
Tecumseh
Native American leader who organized a fight for this land
War Hawks
led by Calhoun and Clay, a member of Congress who favored war against Britain.
They wanted Britain out of Canada
Andrew Jackson
US general, known as “Old Hickory”, won a series of battles in the War of 1812,
led forces in the Battle of New Orleans
War of 1812
War against Great Britain that promoted nationalism of the US, “Uncle Sam”
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ended the War of 1812 (armistice- end to fighting) and, it
brought the US back to pre-war conditions (trading with England)

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