US History Final Exam Review

Laissez-faire
A french phrase meaning “let people do as they choose.” SIG: Supporters if this believed that the government should not interfere in the economy other than to protect private property rights and maintain peace
Rail Roads
Allows nation to expand westward, allows agriculture to expand into the Great Plains. Allows cities and towns to expand. Provides easy ways to get raw materials to factory then finished goods to market. First big business
Bessemer Process
New process of steel manufacturing that eliminates impurities, stronger products, with good efficiency = better product
Andrew Carnegie
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Vertical Integration
Management control – All companies in the supply train are united through a common owner = better financial growth and efficiency
Andrew Carnegie
Horizontal Integration
Combining of factories/businesses into the same business/ one large corporation
J.D. Rockefeller
Manifest Destiny
Belief that the US was destined to spread across the Northern American Continent
Andrew Carnegie
Invented vertical integrated steel industry, which allowed companies to grow bigger
J.D. Rockefeller
Famous industrialist who built oil refineries, Company- Standard Oil
Imperialism
Economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker ones (Feature Article Fin 486 Final Exam)
Queen Liliuokalani
Monark of Hawaii, “Hawaii is for Hawaiians'”, 1900 Hawaii became part of the US
William Randolph Hearst
Owned the New York Journal, reported outrageous stories about how the Spanish treated the Cubans
Joseph Pulitzer
Owned The World newspaper, described Cuba as “hell”
Yellow Journalism
Exaggeration or making up stories to attract readers
Jingoism
Agressive nationalism
Emilio Aguinaldo
A Filipino revolutionary leader who had staged an unsuccessful uprising against the Spanish
President McKinley
President during Spanish-American War, wanted Spanish to restore order in Cuba/expected it in a diplomatic way, peaceful
Valariano Weiler
“The Butcher” – Spanish general sent to Cuba, very violent
Admiral George Dewey
US Admiral who fought in Philippines
Pre-President Roosevelt
In charge of “Rough Riders” calvary
The Treaty of Paris
Cuba was freed from Spanish rule
US gained: Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines
“Remember the Main”
Slogan for excuse for Spanish-American War
Four Main Reasons for Entering WW1
Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism, Entangling Alliances
Militarism
Environment glorifying military spirit and need of constant preparation of war
Imperialism
Acquiring empire-contril of one people without the consent of the governed
Nationalism
Devotion to a nation state
Entangling Alliances
A defensive alliance when each member pledges to come to the assistance of the other if attacked
Sussex Pledge
Solved problems of Germany sinking merchant ships, kept US out of war tiny bit more
Zimmerman Telegram
Telegram from German official to ambassador asking to offer Mexico allieship, intercepted by British
Lusitania
Boat that was sunk by German submarines, changed Americans attitudes, made them want to enter the war
Trench Warfare
The use of tranches to protect soldiers and to fight from, horrific, gory, lost thousands
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty that ended WW1
League of Nations
A group of people that helped preserve peace – Fourteenth point of Wilson’s 14 Points
President Wilson
The president of the US during WW1
Declaration of London
A document all about rules at sea during the war
“Big Four”
President Wilson, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, Vittorio Orlando
Fourteen Points
President Wilsons peace plan, believing that they would establish the conditions for lasting peace in Europe
National Self-Determination
The idea that the borders of countries should be based on ethnicity and national identity
Reparations
Monetary compensation for all the war damage a country had caused
General Pershing
US General who lead the army during WW1
“Palmer Raids”
Raids on Russian and other various radical organizations in which 6,000 people were arrested
-Lead to Russians being deported
Harding Administration
President Harding staffed his administration with political friends from Ohio; presidency marred by many scandals
Prohibition
Outlaw of transporting, selling, and manufacturing alcohol
Al Capone
Murderer, prisoner, all things bad tied to him
“Speakeasies”
1920 underground nightclubs where alcohol was served
Stock Market
Ordinary people becoming very wealthy through buying stocks, involved speculation
Buying on margin
Customers would pay for 10% of what stock was worth. The rest was borrowed from broker and then repaid after stock was sold
Stock speculation
People would buy and sell stocks quickly to make quick money
Black Tuesday
October 29th, 1929 – Stock market crashed
“Hoovervilles”
Temporary camps of homeless and unemployed people
“Bonus Army”
Veterans were promised $1,000 bonus, but when they didn’t receive it, they got angry
Escapeism
Actions people take to try to relieve feelings of depression and sadness, helps to create a mental diversion
Radios + Movies + Literature in 1920
Gave people a way to escape from the depression
“Fireside Chats”
Direct talks in which the president lets Americans know what he is trying to accomplish
“Okies”
People who moved west
Herbert Hoover
“Do nothing” president, blamed for the Depression, Laizze-fare
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Man of action, restored confidence and promises a new plan for America
Three R’s
Relief, Recovery, Reform
First New Deal
Focused on reform and temporary economic recovery
Second New Deal
Focused on permanent reform
Senator Huey Long
Said New Deal Relief measures were mere crumbs and advocated a “share the wealth” plan

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