US History Final Exam Study Guide

black tuesday
nickname of the date of the stock market crash
selective service act
an act that requires young men to enter the military for WWI; the draft
prohibition
the banning of alcoholic beverages in the US
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automobile
this machine had huge impact on the US; invented by henry ford; results in construction of paved roads, gas stations, etc; allows for people to live farther from their jobs.
new deal
FDR’s legislation to end the Great Depression
herbert hoover
his election showed that americans were happy with the course of the nation by 1928; however became largely disfavored during the Great Depression; only had one term due to lack of success
buying on margin
the concept of paying with a small percentage of a stock’s money as a down payment and borrowing the rest
KKK
a group started in 1870; targeted blacks, roman catholics, jews, foreigners, etc. re-surges during the red scare but dies down by the end of the 1920’s
installment plan
a way of purchasing goods in which the consumer pays for goods in small increments over time
communist party
the party of Stalin; citizens have no property; all things are run by the state
jazz age
originated in new orleans; accepted by whites by the 1920’s
NAZI party
the national socialist german worker’s party
chester nimitz
this man led 110 ships to the midway; fought in the battle of midway
alphabet soup
nickname for the many programs designed under FDR’s presidency
dwight eisenhower
head of D Day during WWII; a future president
TVA
a two fold project to help the poorest region in the US, the Tennessee valley
douglas macarthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II; kept his promise of returning to the philippines
PWA
Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.
erwin rommel
hitler’s most feared general; “desert fox”
CCC
a work project designed for men ages 18-25 to build roads and parks, plant trees, execute flood control, and prevent soil erosion
Great Depression
a period of time in which the economy was in severe decline and millions of people were out of work; lasted from 1929-1941
suffrage
the right to vote
henry ford
creator of the assembly line; known for his automobile industry
isolationism
abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations; an American foreign policy
world war I
also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen (1914-1918)
world war II
War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory
imperialism
the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, and military control over weaker countries
hooverville
a nickname for the makeshift communities built on the outskirts of towns and cities
panama canal
one of the greatest construction feats of the US; a trans-ocean route built through panama
germany; japan; italy
the axis powers
theodore roosevelt
first progressive president of the US; responsible for the square deal which encompassed arbitration, trustbusting, and conservationism;
manhattan project
a secret project to develop the atomic bombs used on japan
treaty of versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
united nations
the new international peace-keeping organization created after WWII
big stick policy
A policy enacted by President Roosevelent that encouraged being peaceful in making resolutions but use force if necessary.
spanish american war
this war , In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans’ fight for independence; 3 month war
woodrow wilson
3rd progressive president; president during WWI
wolfpacks
groups of german U-boats sent to sink delivery ships
14 point speech
Wilson’s speech after America entered the war; lenient peace plan; suggests the league of nations
Franklin D. Roosevelt
democratic president who took over during the great depression; held the longest presidency; responsible for great contributions helping the US economy; widely popular
dollar diplomacy
the idea of sending troops to protect business interests in latin america
missionary diplomacy
Woodrow Wilson’s idealistic policy of advocating just principles, peace and democracy, especially in Latin America, and often ended in military intervention
adolf hitler
fuhrer of germany; member of the NAZI party; responsible for the holocaust and the invasion of a majority of europe
d day
an operation headed by dwight eisenhower on june 6, 1944; opened up the western front
yalta conference
a conference that led to the creation of the United Nations
george patton
general who opened up the western front in WWII; liberated france
platt amendment
a document passed that stated: no foreign treaties; US has right to intervene in Cuba; don’t go into debt; US can lease land for naval base (guantanamo bay)
kellog briand pact
a pact signed by 64 nations in agreement to avoid any more aggressive wars in the future; sounded nice but was unrealistic
sacco vanzetti trial
a trial in which two italian men were charged with a crime during a time of nativism; the accused were executed by electric chair; not given fair trial
hiroshima; nagasaki
the two cities/towns in japan that were hit by the US atomic bombs
pearl harbor
the military base located in hawaii that was attacked by the japanese on december 7, 1941
square deal
various progressive reforms under the presidency of theodore roosevelt; designed to help the common man
treaty of paris 1898
an armistice signed to end the spanish american war; grants cuba its independence, gives US the philippines and puerto rico, and gives spain $20 million
holocaust
the systematic murder of about 11 million people across europe; primarily jews
winston churchill
prime minister of britain during WWII
United States; France; Great Britain; USSR
allied powers of WWII
frances perkins
1st female cabinet member; responsible for the creation of social security
emilio aguinaldo
leader of rebellion in the philippines; once helped US in spanish american war
upton sinclair
wrote The Jungle to expose the Chicago meat packing industry
warren g harding
president elected in the election of 1920; promoted a return to normalcy and isolationism; presidency marked with scandal
harry truman
president responsible for the decision to drop the atomic bomb; largely unprepared for his presidency and doubted by many; president at start of cold war
f scott fitzgerald
writer of The Great Gatsby
calvin coolidge
massachussetts governor who responded to the boston police strike by calling the national guard; becomes president after harding has a heart attack
william h taft
successor of theodore roosevelt; second progressive president; largest president; more cautious than roosevelt; work displeases roosevelt
franz ferdinand
the archduke who was assassinated; his assassination was the immediate cause of WWI
al capone
gang leader during a time of prohibition; major leader of organized crime
rough riders
a group of cavalry led by theodore roosevelt in the spanish american war
san juan hill
the battle in the spanish american war that allowed for US control of the island
red scare
a state of panic in the US over the fear that communism was taking over the country
japanese internment
the removal of japanese from California and parts of western US; placed in camps until the end of the war
fascism
a new political movement that called for a strong central government headed by a powerful dictator
nuremberg laws
laws passed in germany that stripped jews of civil rights and property
nuremberg trials
trials that convicted many officials guilty of war crimes involving the holocaust
relief; recovery; reform
the 3 r’s of the new deal
trustbuster
nickname given to theodore roosevelt for his work in breaking up many trusts
court packing plan
a plan to raise the number of supreme court justices to 15 to give FDR a majority
bull moose party
a new third party formed during the election of 1912; supporters of theodore roosevelt

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