US History II Clep

US History II Clep

Where did Tammany Hall (political machine) get most of its support?
poor immigrants and ethnic communities in the inner cities. they promised them help in return for votes.
European Musical Influence+African=a 1890s New Orleans originated musical genre…
Jazz
Tet Offensive
failed attacks by the Vietcong guerillas and North Vietnamese, but it simultaneously ended US hopes for an early end to the Vietnam War
What even triggered the Truman Doctrine?
The Greek Civil War
What was the Greek Civil War about?
Greece was torn between Communism and democracy and they could not have defeated communism without western help.
Cause of the Spanish-American War:
American expansionism and support for the Cuban nationalism.
US Senate reaction to the 1918 Treaty of Versailles?
The senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations and for the treaty that the peace conference produced. Wilson refused to compromise on various treaty provisions and the senate rejected the treaty both times it was sent to them.
The Lost Generation
young writers disillusioned by the materialism, decadence, and conformity dominating 1920s America
Boss Tweed
Leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine (greedy)
Name four factors that contributed to the Great Depression
excessive stocks and securities speculation//protectionist trade measures//huge farm debts resulting from collapsed crop prices//imbalance of distribution of wealth in which the rich controlled far too much of the available income
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
This Act reversed previous Indian policy by guaranteeing religious freedom and tribal self-government and providing economic assistance.
Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society Program
aimed to secure civil rights for all Americans and eliminating poverty
Jim Crow Laws
established separate segregated facilities for blacks and whites
Smoot-Hawley Tariffs long term effect:
Europe retaliated and our economy as well as theirs weakened.
Smoot-Hawley Tariffs
raised US tariffs on imported goods. second highest raise in US history…decreased our exports and imports by half
Why was the Iran-Contra affair upsetting?
we traded arms to Iran for the release of our hostages
what area of the US saw the greatest percentage of population increase between 1860 and 1910?
the great plains
why was the 14th amendment important?
guaranteed equal protection under the law for every American citizen.
who was president for the 14th amendment?
Andrew Johnson
13th amendment
prohibited slavery
15th amendment
guaranteed voting rights
19th amendment
women could vote
16th amendment
authorized income tax
Why did watergate lead to Nixon’s impeachment?
because of his role of covering it up
Atlantic Charter
set collective war strategy and long-term war goals for Britain and the United States
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
Sponsored by Senator Henry L Dawes, this act dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like “good white settlers” then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men.
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Truman Doctrine
President Truman’s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
W.E.B. Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
John Dewey
He was a philosopher who believed in “learning by doing” which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers’ goal should be “education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard.”
dumbarton oaks conference
In a meeting near Washington, D.C., held from August 21 to October 7, 1944, U.S., Great Britain, U.S.S.R. and China met to draft the constitution of the United Nations.
worst unemployment rate during depression
25%
Turning Point in Pacific war between U.S. and Japan
Midway
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
ordered the desegregation of public schools, prohibiting the practice of segregation via “separate but equal” schools for blacks and whites
One of the major effects of the Industrial Revolution
emphasis on speed over quality of work
American hostage crisis in Iran
American gov allowed the deposed Iranian Shah to come to the U.S. for cancer treatment
Roosevelt’s “Good Neighbor” Policy
retreat from the military interventionism and blatant economic domination, which had characterized previous American policy toward Latin America
Reaganomics
“trickle down” theory- supply side economic policies. cut federal spending on domestic programs and cut taxes for the wealthy and corporations. he thought this would help create new jobs.
Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson’s 1918 proposal to convince Germans they would be treated fairly if they surrendered.
U.S. presidents between 1876-1900 had little influence and were considered weak. why?
they considered themselves caretakers, not dynamic initiators of new legislation.
How did muckrackers contribue to the rise of Progressivism?
exposes of government and business corruption, abuse, and mismanagement led to widely supported public demands for effective reform.
New Deal
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt’s economic policies were implemented
Name some New Deal agencies
Civil Works Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, Works Progress Administration, National Youth Administration
Most important factor in the Plains Indians’ societies:
the destruction of the buffalo herds by whites
What did the sharecropping system do after the Reconstruction?
pushed tenant farmers and poor independent farmers into deep levels of debt to large landowners and merchants.
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
curbed abusive pricing and hauling policies by the nation’s railroads.
Knights of Labor
the only dominant broad-based labor union in the united states from 1870-1890
why did the US refuse to participate in the 1980 Moscow olympics?
the Soviets had invaded Afghanistan
who was betty friedan?
wrote “the feminine mystique” about feminism. women can do anything men can do.
voting rights act of 1965
outlawed discrimination toward african-american voters
what did Reagan’s economic recovery act of 1981 do?
reduced federal income taxes for all taxpayers
Reagan ordered the invasion of what small island in order to prevent it from becoming communist?
Grenada
what group of voters did Nixon appeal to in 1968?
the silent majority. nixon’s slogan was “law and order”
what was the silent majority?
the citizens who weren’t really involved in the violent anti-war Vietnam protests. they didn’t involve themselves in race riots or activism. the silent majority was the average citizen. hard working middle class conservative.
Bush wanted to invade Kuwait…what was the result of that vote?
slim majority, but it gave the approval for the war enough edge to win out. (gulf war)
NSC
national security council
What did the NSC in the early years of the Cold War approve of?
New taxes to fund military growth
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
Taft-Harley Act
prohibited strikes. right to work laws (companies couldn’t force union membership) aka labor management relations act.
What were the SALT treaties?
strategic arms limitation talks- for the purpose of armament control between US and Soviets
SALT 1 treaty (1972)
froze the number of weapons where they were at. Nixon. Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). meaning if both sides deployed their missiles then both parties would be destroyed…there would be no “victory.”
SALT I
the first treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
SALT II
(JEC) 1979, Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.’s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
great railroad strike of 1877
part of the panic of 1873 (long depression) in which president rutherford hayes sent in troops to stop the strikers. because of the financial losses, more people started to turn to the democrats, and stopped supporting the republicans (the people forcing the reconstruction)
Tenure of Office Act
a president can’t take someone out of office just because they were appointed by a previous president unless Congress agrees.
what happened when Andrew Johnson tried to remove Secretary of War Stanton from office despite the tenure of office act?
he came within one vote of impeachment
the compromise of 1877
the election between hayes (republican) and tilden (democrat). there were contested votes in some southern states, so in this compromise, the south agreed to let hayes win if the republicans put a stop to the reconstruction. freedman viewed this as a betrayal, because whites began to ignore the assurance of civil rights in the south.
which president was responsible for the income tax?
wilson. 16th amendment
Casablanca conference
churchill and FDR decided that the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers was necessary.
Farmers’ Alliances of the 1880s
appealed to Southern and Great Plains farmers frustrated with low crop prices and drowning in the sharecropping and crop lien systems.
ABC prgrams
those implemented by Franklin Delanor Roosevelt during the Great Depression to give relief to the unemployed.
Affirmative action
programs designed to overcome past discriminatory actions such as providing employment opportunities to members of a group that were previously denied employment because of racial barriers
Amendment
the modification of the constitution or a law
Appeasement
the act of making concessions to a political party of military rival
Big stick diplomacy
using American military power to fortify the diplomatic policies of the United States
Big Three
leaders of the three major allied powers ( Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin)
Bill of rights
the first ten amendments to the constitution
Bipartisan
politics that emphasizes cooperation between the major parties
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929, the day the stock market fell about 40 points with 16.5 million shares traded
Block grants
federal money provided to a state of local government for a general purpose, such as reducing crime or improving education, with relatively few requirements on how the states can spend the money
Brown vs. Board of education of topeka
the supreme court declared the doctrine of “separate but equal” constitutional
Caucus
a closed meeting of Democratic Party leaders to agree on a legislative program
Civil rights act of 1964
legislative act that removed racial barriers in all places vested with public interest
Class action suit
a lawsuit filed on behalf of a group of persons with a similar legal claim against a party or individual
Cloture
parliamentary procedure for ending debate and calling for an immediate vote on a pending matter.
Conglomerate
a corporation that has many businesses in unrelated fields
Contras
Right wing guerillas who fought the leftist Sandinista government of Nicaragua
Court packing
the act of placing members of the same political party on the bench so that opinion of the court will be consistent with the political party’s ( seen most dramatically with Franklin D. Roosevelt)
Crime of ’73
What pro-inflation forces called the demonetization of silver
De facto segregation
segregation that results from nongovernmental action; i.e.,administered by the pubic
De Jure segregation
legally established segregation
Deregulation
the act of reducing or eliminating economic controls
Dixiecrats
Southern Democrats who opposed Truman because of his support of civil rights; nominated Strom Thurmond for president in 1948 campaign
Dred Scott vs. Sanford
the supreme court upheld the right of a slave owner to reclaim his property after the slave had fled into a free state
eminent domain
the power of a government to seize private property for public use, usually with compensation to the owner
ethnocentrism
a belief that one’s ethnic group is superior
Executive Agreement
informal agreements made by the executive with a foreign government
Filibuster
a senator who gains the floor has the right to go in talking until the senator relinquishes the floor to another
Franchise
the right to engage in the electing of public office holders
Gerrymander
redrawing of congressional districts in order to secure as many representative party voters as possible
Gideon vs. Wainwright
case decided by the U.S supreme court in 1963 that established the right to legal representation for all defendants in criminal cases
GOP
the republican party
Iran-Contra affair
political scandal involving the selling of arms to Iran so that the profits from these sales could be used to fund the contras in Central America
Jim Crow Laws
laws designed to promote racial segregation
Kennedy, John F.
im 1960 became youngest man elected president of the united states; established peace corps in 1961; issued challenge to NASA to land a man on the moon; assassinated in 1963
King,Jr., Martin Luther
civil rights leader who fought for the rights of minorities by the use of peaceful civil disobedience
League of Nations
international organization to promote peaceful resolution of international conflicts; called on all members to protect the territorial integrity and political independence of all nations; replaced by United Nations
Malcom X
radical muslin leader who wanted a total separation of the races
Mapp vs. Ohio
the supreme court recognized that evidence seized without a search warrant cannot be used
Miranda vs. Arizona
1966 case in which the supreme court decided that all persons who are detained or arrested must be informed of their rights
Moral Majority
Christian conservatives, led by the Rev. jerry Falwell. who favored prayer and teaching of creationism in public schools, opposed abortion and pornography, and backed a strong national defense
Muckrakers
investigative journalists and authors who exposed corruption in business and government
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; pledged that and attack against one was an attack against all
Naturalization
process by which persons acquire citizenship
New Deal
legislation championed by Franklin D. Roosevelt during the great depression that provided a safety net (Social Security) for all members of society
Nixon, Richard M
the only president of the United States to resign after being confronted with impeachment (because of his alleged actions in the Watergate scandal)
Nonproliferation Treaty
an agreement not to distribute nuclear arms to countries that do not have them
Open Door Policy
declared that trade with China should be open to all nations
Original Intent
a doctrine of Constitutional interpretation that says Supreme court Justices should base their interpretations of the Constitution in its authors’ intent
Partisan
political opposition drawn along party lines
Plessy vs. Ferguson
supreme court ruling that established the rule of “separate but equal” as being constitutional
Populist
a political coalition of agrarians with urban workers and the middle class; goals included monetization of silver, a graduated income tax, public ownership of railroads, telegraph, telephone systems, an eight hour work day, and a ban on private armies used to break up strikes.
Progressivism
political movement calling for rejuvenation of free enterprise capitalism and the destruction of illegal monopolies; also called for civil service reform and honest and efficient government
Reagan, Ronald
two-term president during the 1980’s whose economic policies follower supply-side theory
Referendum
the process whereby a legislative proposal is vetoed upon by popular vote
Roe vs. Wade
the supreme court decision establishing a woman’s right to an abortion
Roosevelt, Franklin D.
President of the united Sates during the Depression and WWII; most noted for his enactment of New Deal programs such as the Social Security Act
Scalawags
Southerners who supported Reconstruction programs
Supply-side Economics
economic theory that says if government policies leave more money in the hands of people, they will invest it and stimulate the economy
Symbolic speech
nonverbal communication of a political idea
Tuman Doctrine
President Truman’s assertion that the United States must support free peoples who were resisting Communist domination
United States vs. Nixon
the Supreme court ruled that material vested with a public interest could not be withheld from evidence under the rule of executive privilege
War Powers Act
the act requires Congress to approve stationing American troops overseas fro more than 90 days (so that another Vietnam wouldn’t happen)
Watergate
the illegal entry and phone monitoring in 1972 of Democratic headquarters in the Watergate complex in Washington by members of the Republican Party
ABC Programs
those implemented by Franklin Delano Roosevelt during the Great Depression to give relief to the unemployed.
Affirmative Action
programs designed to overcome past discriminatory actions such as providing employment opportunities to members of a group that were previously denied employment because of racial barriers.
Amendment
the modification of the constitution or a law.
Appeasement
the act of making concessions to a political or military rival.
Big Stick Diplomacy
Using American military power to fortify the diplomatic policies of the United States.
Big Three
Leaders of the three major powers allied powers (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin).
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
Bipartisan
politics that emphasizes cooperation between the major parties.
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929, the day the stock market fell about 40 points with 16.5 million shares traded.
Block grants
federal money provided to a state or local government for a general purpose, such as reducing crime or improving education, with relatively few requirements on how the states can spend the money.
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
the Supreme Court declared the doctrine of “separate but equal” unconstitutional.
Cabinet
the heads of the various departments in the Executive branch who aid in the decision-making process.
Capital Punishment
the execution of an individual by the state as punishment for heinous offenses.
Caucus
a closed meeting of Democratic Party leaders to agree on a legislative program.
Civil Right Act of 1964
legislative act that removed racial barriers in all places vested with a public interest.
Class Action Suit
a lawsuit filed on behalf of a group of persons with a similar legal claim against a party or individual.
Cloture
parliamentary procedure for ending debate and calling for an immediate vote on a pending matter.
Conference
a meeting between committees of the two branches of the legislature to reconcile differences in pending bills.
Conglomerate
a corporation that has many businesses in unrelated fields.
Containment
strategy that called for containing communism and preventing it from spreading any further.
Contras
Right-wing guerrillas who fought the leftist Sandinista government of Nicaragua.
Court Packing
the act of placing members of the same political party on the bench so that opinion of the court will be consistent with the political party’s (seen most dramatically wit Franklin Delano Roosevelt).
Crime of ’73
What pro-inflation forces called the demonetization of silver.
De Facto Segregation
segregation that results from non-goverment action; i.e., administered by the public.
De Jure Segration
legally established segregation.
Democrat
any member of the Democratic Party, one of two major parties in the U.S.; party’s lineage traces to Jefferson’s Democratic Republican Party (1792).
Deregulation
the act of reducing or eliminating economic controls.
Desegregation
the removal of racial barriers either by legislation or judicial action.
Dixiecrats
Southern Democrats who opposed Truman because of his support of civil rights; nominated Strom Thurmond for president in 1948 campaign.
Dred Scott vs. Sanford
the Supreme Court upheld the right of a slave owner to reclaim his property after the slave had fled into a free state.
Eminent Domain
the power of a government to seize private property for public use, usually with compensation to the owner.
Ethnocentrism
a belief that one’s ethnic group is superior.
Executive Agreement
informal agreements made by the executive with a foreign government.
Filibuster
a senator who gains the floor has the right to go on talking until the senator relinquishes the floor to another.
Foreign Policy
treaties, agreements, and programs focusing on the relations between the United States and other nations.
Franchise
the right to engage in the electing of public office holders.
Gerrymander
redrawing of congressional districts in order to secure as many representative party votes as possible.
Gideon vs. Wainwright
case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1963 that established the right to legal representation for all defendants in criminal cases.
GOP
the Republican Party.
Hoovervilles
empty spaces around cities where the homeless would set up empty shacks in which to live.
Impeachment
the process used to remove certain officials, including the President, from office. Similar to a trial, impeachment does not necessarily mean that an official will be removed from office; he or she must be found guilty of an impeachable offense.
Intrest Group
group of persons who share some common interest and attempt to influence elected members of the government.
Iran-Contra
the selling of arms to Iran so that the profits from these sells could be used to fund the contras in El Salvador.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to promote racial segregation.
John F. Kennedy
elected in 1960 as youngest president of the United states; established the Peace Courts in 1961; issued challenge to NASA to land a man on the moon; assassinated in 1963.
Martin Luther King Jr.
civil rights leader who fought for the rights of minorities by the use of peaceful civil disobedience.
Lame Duck
a defeated office holder after that person has lost their re-election, but is still in office until the newly elected official is sworn in.
League of Nations
international organization to promote peaceful resolution of international conflicts; called on all members to protect the territorial integrity and political independence of all nations; replaced by United Nations.
Line-Item Veto
the objection by the president to a single item in a piece of legislation; this authority, signed into law by President Clinton in 1996, was unsuccessfully challenged as unconstitutional by six members of Congress, with the U.S. Supreme Court saying the plaintiffs had no legal standing to bring to case.
Lobbying
activities aimed at influencing public officials and the policies they enact.
Malcom X
radical Muslim leader who wanted a total separation of the races.
Mapp vs. Ohio
the Supreme Court recognized decided that evidence seized without a search warrant cannot be used.
McCarthysim
the act of seeking subversives without cause or need (seen during the 1950s when Senator Joseph McCarthy stoked fear of Communism).
Miranda vs. Arizona
1966 case in which U.S. Supreme Court decided that all persons who are detained or arrested must be informed of their rights.
Moral Majority
Christian conservatives, led by Rev. Jerry Falwell, who favored prayer and teaching of creationism in public schools, opposed abortion and pornography, and backed a strong national defense.
Muckrakers
investigative journalists and authors who exposed corruption in business and government.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; pledged that an attack against one was an attack against all.
Naturalization
process by which persons acquire citizenship.
New Deal
legislation championed by Franklin Delano Roosevelt during the Great Depression that provided a safety net (e.g., Social Security) for all members of society.
Richard M. Nixon
the only president of the United States to resign after being confronted with impeachment (because of his alleged actions in the Watergate scandal).
Nonproliferation Treaty
an agreement not to distribute nuclear arms to countries that do not have them.
Open Door Policy
declared that trade with China should be open to all nations.
Original Intent
a doctrine of Constitutional interpretation that says Supreme Court Justices should base their interpretations of the Constitution on its authors’ intentions.
Partisan
political opposition drawn along party lines.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Supreme Court ruling that established the rule of “separate but equal” as being constitutional.
Political Question
constitutional question that judges refuse to answer because to do so would encroach upon the authority of Congress or the president.
Poll Tax
the requirement of a person to pay for the right to vote.
Populist
a political coalition of agrarians with urban workers and the middle class; goals included monetization of silver, a graduated income tax, public ownership of railroads, telegraph, telephone systems, an eight-hour workday, and a ban on private armies used to break up strikes.
Progressivism
political movement calling for rejuvenation of free enterprise capitalism and the destruction of illegal monopolies; also called for civil service reform and honest and efficient government.
Public Opinion
the beliefs, preferences, and attitudes about an issue that involves the government or society at large.
Ronald W. Reagan
two-term president during the 1980s whose economic policies followed supply-side theory.
Referendum
the process whereby a legislative proposal is voted upon by popular vote.
Republican
any member of the Republican Party, one of the U.S.’s two major political parties; the GOP came into being 1854-1856, unifying anti-slavery forces.
Roe vs. Wade
the Supreme Court decision establishing a woman’s right to an abortion.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
president of the United States during the Depression and World War ll; most noted for his enactment of New Deal programs such as the Social Security Act.
Scalawags
Southerners who supported Reconstruction programs.
Social Darwinism
application of Darwin’s theory of evolution, survival of the fittest, to justify unequal distribution of wealth by claiming that God granted wealth to the fittest.
Supply-Side Economics
economic theory that says if government policies leave more money in the hands of people, the will invest it and stimulate the economy.
Symbolic Speech
nonverbal communication of a political idea.
Tariff
any tax levied on import goods.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman’s assertion that the United States must support free peoples who were resisting Communist domination.
United States vs. Nixon
the Supreme Court ruled that material vested with a public interest could not be withheld from evidence under the rule of executive privilege.
War Powers Act
the act requires Congress to approve stationing American troops overseas for more than 90 days.
Watergate
the illegal entry and phone monitoring in 1972 of Democratic headquarters in the Watergate complex in Washington by members of the Republican Party.
Ten Percent Plan
Each of the seceded states had to have 10 percent of their voting population agree to rejoining the Union according to this plan.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
(Dec. 1863) issued by Lincoln: offered full pardon to Southerners who would take oath of allegiance to the Union and acknowledge emancipation
Radical Republicans
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Wade-Davis Bill
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
Freedmen’s Bureau
1865 – Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Provided blacks with the right to serve in juries, vote, and sue, as well as other rights.
Thirteenth Amendment
Freed all slaves
Fourteenth Amendment
Made all former slaves born in the United States citizens, a constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep african americans from obtaining their civil rights
First Reconstruction Act
(1867) divided the South into military districts, granted local voting rights to African Americans, and barred former Confederate leaders from holding office.
Second Reconstruction Act
a bill passed to secure black voting rights, this placed Union troops in charge of voter registration.
Fifteenth Amendment
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Tenure of Office Act
Requires the president to get formal approval of Congress before he removes any congressionally appointed cabinet member
Edwin M. Stanton
Strong proponent of Reconstruction left over from Lincoln’s cabinet; Andrew Johnson tried to fire him after the Tenure of Office Act was enacted, and AJ faced trials for impeachment.
Black Codes
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
Ku Klux Klan Act
1871, this act allowed Congress to act against terrorist organizations like the Ku Klux Klan and outlawed Klan activity
carpetbaggers
Northerners who went to the South after the Civil War to profit financially from the confused and unsettled conditions
scalawags
southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
sharecroppers
people who rent a plot of land from another person, and farm it in exchange for a share of the crop
Ulysses S. grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Credit Mobilier
a major scandal in Grant’s second term; a construction company, aided by members of COngress, bilked the government out of $20-40 million in building the transcontinental railroad. Members of Congress were bribed to cover up the overcharges.
Whiskey Ring
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
Liberal Republicans
Party formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party) which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.
William “Boss” Tweed
Head of the Democrat’s political machine that was headquartered in Tammany Hall.
Samuel J. Tilden
Hayes’ opponent in the 1876 presidential race, he was the Democratic nominee who had gained fame for putting Boss Tweed behind bars. He collected 184 of the necessary 185 electoral votes.
Electoral Count Act
this act set up an electoral commission consisting of 15 people from the senate, house, and supreme court.