US History Mid Term Exam
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Rebellion of discontent former landless servants led by Nathaniel Bacon. Though the rebellion was crushed, it caused a move from indentured servants to African slaves for labor purposes.
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 to convince the colonists that it was time to become independent.
Initiated in Virginia and spread many companies such as the Virginia Company of Plymouth. The English sometimes worked peacefully with Native Americans to exchange goods and ideas, but often their cultures clashed
First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley– English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
House of Burgesses
The first official legislative assembly in the Colonies
the system of temporary servitude, where young men and women bound themselves to masters for fixed terms of servitude (four to five years), in exchange for passage to America, food and shelter. This method of labor was one of the largest elements of colonial population in America.
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop’s in barns and empty houses
first permanent colony for the British, original settlers suffered from disease, economy stabled after tobacco was cultivated; this colony was burnt to the ground twice
John Peter Zenger
A New York editor whose trial for seditious libel backfired on the government; the jury found that truth was a defense for libel.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It was a simple agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon; it was a promising step toward genuine self-government – declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Navigation Acts of 1650
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.
A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Seperatists, in 1620. The Seperatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed. Plymouth became part of Massachusetts in 1691.
Proclamation of 1763
issued by King goege III following Great Britain’s acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years’ War. organize Britain’s vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with North American Indians through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. forbade Americans from settling or buying land west of the Appalachians.
Roger Williams founded this colony when he was expelled from Massachusetts for religious disagreements. Supported the separation of church and state and paying the Indians for their land.
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don’t know what became of them.
was a popular Salem minister who had radical ideas and an unrestrained tongue; was banned from the Bay colony for speaking his “nerve and dangerous opinions”, and created the Rhode island in 1635 with complete freedom of religion
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
Second Continental Congress
It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
Sons of Liberty
colonists, formed to keep colonies informed of events and organize protests against British (boycotts, riots, articles)
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Officially ended French/Indian war, Britain dominated
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
3 G’s of Portuguese Exploration
God, Gold, and Glory
1763 – An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
King Philip’s War
1675 – A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
Tea Act of 1773
Allowed East India Company to avoid navigation taxes when exporting tea to colonies and gave them power to monopolize tea trade; this angered colonists and threatened merchants and the colonial economy.
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
representative law making body whose members are elected or appointed.
Effects of French and Indian War
balance of power shifts in north america; britain’s only major competitor in north america is spain, colonists gain valuable military experience, britain raises taxes to pay for war and to keep standing army in north america, colonist move west across appalachian mountains; britain enacts the proclamation of 1763 which bans colonial settlement west of the appalachian mts.
Causes of French and Indian War
1st cause- the first cause of the french and indian war was mercantilism because france and britain were fighting over territory and so they can get wealth and power. 2nd cause- (fur trade)- the british wanted to take over the french trade and basically just move in on it. 3rd cause- westward expansion- colonies move past the appalachian mountains.
Jamestown vs Plymouth
Jamestown relied heavily on tobacco and Plymouth was a community known for shipping. religion: Plymouth was very religious and Jamestown wasn’t as focused on that as they were trying to find new land. both colonies had interactions with indians.
Road to Revolution
Colonist part of British Empire and King confined themselves to governing America’s foreign trade and policy… after winning seven years war, parliament reasoned that the Colonist should pay for the money that was used during the war….in order to get revenue the Parliament taxed newspapers, documents, paper, glass, paint, and tea, and tightened up trade regulations….. Parliament imposed taxes without colonist consent (protested, boycotted, threw 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor)…. Colonists formed First Continental Congress in September 1774