US History since 1877-2

THE TWENTIES
Reaction to change from WW1
Nativism, Restrictive Laws, Sacco and Venzetti, The Klan, Fundamentalism in religion, Scopes Trial, Prohibition, Women’s suffrage
Nativism
the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners
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Immigration Laws
Emergency Immigration Act, Immigration act of 1924
Sacco and Venzetti
two men wrongly- accused of murder and robbery because they were radical anarchists immigrants, finally sentenced to death in 1927
The Klan
New trend brought on by sentiments on immigration, not just against African Americans
Fundamentalist Religion
Literal interpretation of the Bible, Billie Sunday
Scopes Trial
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school. Debated by Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan
Prohibition
18th Amendment, movement started in the progressive era, difficult to enforce, repealed in 1933.
Reason for Prohibition
War time spirit sacrafice and need for grain, Hostility to German immigrants, fundamentalism in religion
The New Women
Womens suffrage, Alice Paul- equal rights amendment, increase in women in workforce
Flappers
Short hair, short skirts, new attitudes, popular by Hollywood
African American Rights
NAACP, enforcement of 14th & 15th amendments, anti-lynching laws, testing laws in court
Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African American pride and, artistic creativity during the 1920’s centered in the Harlem community of NYC. With poets like Langston Hughes
Jazz
Followed great migration, originated from ragtime and blues, syncopated, Louis Armstrong,
Marcus Garvey
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Modern Scientists
Albert Eisenstein, Planck, Heisenberg
Modern Artists
Margaret Meade, T.S Elliot, Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway
New kinds of Art
dadaism, atonal music, stream of consciousness
Prospering areas of the economy
Airlines, Automobiles, Construction, Labor
Reasons for Prosperity
post war demands for goods, pro business attitude of the government, effectiveness in production, availability of credit, new technologies and industries.
Henry Ford
a factory owner famous for his Model T. He developed the assembly line, which quickened production in factories, as well as the Model T.
Coolidge and Harding economic philosophy
Reduce taxes, Reduce spending, Protective tariffs, Little regulation
Teapot dome scandal
Albert Fall accused of accepting bribes for access to government oil in Teapot Dome, Wyoming
Election of 1928
Herbert Hoover (Republican), John Davis (Democrat). Hoover Wins
The Thirties and the Great Depression
Reason for Depression and stock market crash
speculation in the market: stock above market over confidence in the market, market saturation, unequal distribution of wealth, global trends, government politics
Hoover’s response to the depression
Glass Stegal Banking Act, Emergency relief Act, Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Critics of hoovers response to the depression
World War One Vets- wanted bonuses, marched on Washington DC,
Reconstruction finance Corporation
Emergency loans to banks and life insurance companies.
Emergency relief Act
Relief loans to the states, local construction
The Bonus Army
Group of WWI veterans who had been promised their bonuses for fighting in WWI/ they marched on Washington D.C. and camped out on the White House lawn/ Hoover commanded Douglas MacArthur with the army to get rid of them/ some were killed and others wounded
Roosevelt’s Philosophy
Recovery, Relief, Reform
New Deal Programs
Economy Act, Public Works Administration, AAA, CCC, NIRA, Social Security, Tennessee Valley Authority
Economy Act
Cutting salaries and benefits of government workers, Reorganizing of government agencies to save money
Public Works Administration
Plump Priming: putting money into economy to help it grow,
AAA (Agriculture Adjustment Act)
Reducing Agriculture Output, Paying farmers to reduce output, Plowing under fields,
CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps)
Conservation Jobs for young unemployed men, housing provided in camps, required to send some of their pay home
NIRA (National Industry Recovery Act)
Setting fair competition prices and codes, End unfair business practices, National laborer, Critics claimed reduced free competition
Social Security
federal program of disability and retirement benefits that covers most working people
Tennessee Valley Authority
Independent Public Corporation to create dams in the Tennessee to generate electricity for rural areas, and control flooding.
Huey Long
Critic of new deal, share our wealth, guarantee certain incomes, pension for the ages
Father Coughlin
Critic of new deal, Radio show, National Union for Social Justice
Francis Townsend
Critic of new deal, Townsend recovery program, Pensions for the aged
Court Packaging plan
Courts hard on the new deal, adding more federal judges, fear of presidential control
African Americans and the new deal
Disproportionate aid, Tenet farmers hurt in particular, fear of alienating south
Dust Bowl
Added to Misery of the 1930’s for farmers, due to bad farming practices, and drought
World War Two
Isolationism
a policy of nonparticipating in international economic and political relations. because of fear of another war, fear that arms build up brought on WWI, thought US brought into WWI by Business & Alliances
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Agreement signed in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another, self defense allowed, 62 signatures
Five Power Treaty
US, Japan, France, Great Britain, Italy, Agree to tonnage limits, Ten year ban on new battleships, refrain from curter fortification in the pacific
Four Power Treaty
Respecting Possessions in the pacific, US, GB, France, Japan
Nine Power Treaty
Respecting China and the open door policy
Neutrality Acts
Act 1935 made it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war,
Act 1936 embargo with nations at war and it banned loans to the nations that were fighting,
Act of 1937 no expiration date, and extended to cover civil wars. Also, U.S. ships prohibited from transporting any passengers or articles to belligerents, and U.S. citizens forbidden from traveling on ships of belligerent nations, private ships can come at own risk
Spanish Civil War
civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government. US was neutral
Events leading to WWII
Pearl harbor, German Invasion of Poland, Spanish Civil War
Hitler: Czechoslovakia, Poland
March 15, 1939 Hitler seized rest of Czechoslovakia; Britain promised help to Poland, Greece, and Romania if they were attacked, Suttenland, Munich Conference: Germany Invades Poland WWII starts.
Critics of Involvement in WWII
Atlantic Charter
Roosevelt and Church hill, US and GB committed to ending Nazis Regime, agree on self determination and free trade
Lend/Lease: Cash/Carry
Selling, leasing and giving war materials and supplies to Allies: Getting goods if they came to US
Reasons and response to pearl harbor
Surprise attack to get US to stop or not be able to fight in the war. US declares war on Japan
Battle at Coral sea
This battle was the first win for America in the Pacific, and took over Japan’s territory, June 1942, Stop at Australia
Battle at Midway
Turning point, halts Japan
D Day
allied forces land in Normandy, France to begin massive offensive against Germans in occupied territories of Europe
Battle of the bulge
German attack, last ditch effort, December 1944, by 1945 allies fight into Germany
Hiroshima and Nagasaki- Atomic Bomb
Debate over bomb, using bomb would eliminate deadly invasion, would demonstrate our power,
home front- Employment
Women entering workforce
home front- Minority groups
African Americans- Tuskegee airmen, more opportunities than before, integrated officer candidate schools: Native Americans- Served at a higher rate, Navajo code talkers
home front- Japanese
Interment, easy to Identify, fear of spies, moved from homes to deserted areas forced to sell goods and businesses
home front- Government intervention
Publicizing rations and economy drives, rationalizing, and economy drives.
Causes of the Cold War
•Soviet takes control of Eastern European nations.
•Communism gains in Western Europe, The Middle East, and Asia
•Western powers fear Soviet expansion.
Marshall Plan
Secretary of State George Marshall, Europe was destroyed after the war, Giving aid to keep out of Communism
Truman Doctrine
Greece and Turkey, resisting spread of Communism, had received British aid but British are no longer capable. Aiding those countries resisting subjection.
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Containment
Keeping communism from spreading.If communism not contained would spread throughout the world
Berlin Air Lift
Russia blocking access to west Berlin, getting supplies to a struggling west Berlin by plane
Brinksmanship
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
NATO
Alliance of 12 nations, mutual defense, separation from past foreign policy, Warsaw pact is the eastern counterpart
Election of 1948
Dewy (Republican)-Truman (Democrat)
Truman and Wallace, Truman as desegregated government Jobs. Expectation Dewy to win but Truman Wins
The loss of ‘China’
Mao takes power- 1949, communism is now in China, fear of soviet connection
NSC-68
Policy made by National Security Council, conflict with USSR unavoidable, soviet aims ran counter to ours Supports increase in defense spending.
Population and Suburban growth
Baby boom, longer life expectancy, moving to suburbs, mass production of homes
Douglass McArthur
general in command of U.S. forces in the Korean War, use nuclear weapons against China
Korean War- Reasons for involvement
North invades South- June 1950, World wide response-Afraid of apeasment, Considered
Korean War- Chinese involvement
US forces too close to border with China
Reasons for the red scare
fear of the spread of Communism and Socialism, this fear started in thirties but was put off for war,
Hollywood ten
Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood
Rosenbergs
Husband and wife tried/executed for treason under suspicion of communist influence and trading atomic bomb secrets with the Soviet Union during Manhattan project
Alger hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Joseph McCarthy
US senator; claimed that their were Soviet spies and Communists within the government but had no evidence; discredited by the US senate
Army McCarthy hearings
a series of hearings where Senator McCarthy accused people in the US military of being communists
house UN-american activities committee
established in 1938 to investigate disloyalty in the US
Truman and the fair deal
Same as New Deal, just a name change
Reforms in education, health care and civil rights
Declined to run in 1952 – too worn out from fighting with Congress
Election of 1952
Eisenhower- war hero, wants out of korea: Stevenson- democrat, lost easily
Reason for economic growth in 1950’s
Pent up demand for products, Credit, Government benefits, Consumer culture- teenagers
Baby Boom
the rapid population increase that took place bewteen 1945 and 1960
Fifties society
Youth and rebellion, Rock and Roll- Elvis, Buddy holly
Brown vs Board of education
1954-Oliver Brown sued against school segregation. Court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Little rock nine
Nine african american students who first integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957. Government refused to integrate, Eisenhower forced to use troops to desegregate the schools
Southern Manifesto
1956, Opposition of Southern congressmen to Brown v. Board of Education decision
Rosa Parks
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
protest in 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Eisenhower and Domestic Policy
Reduce government role in economy, what is good for business is good for economy, cut federal farm subsidies, ended wage and price controls, continuation of new deal programs.
Dien Bien Phu
The place that the final battle took place that forced the French out of Vietnam
Suez canal
Egypt wants British out of the canal, US agrees and doesn’t want Egypt to have any communist influence after it controls the canal.
Sputnik
The world’s first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Rise of Fidel Castro
replaced a dictator, but soon started nationalizing land, eventually communist.
The Sixty’s
Election of 1960
Kennedy(democrat), Nixon(republican)
First Television debate
Martin Luther King
Favors civil rights, but also Non-Violence
Expansion of the civil rights movement
Freedom Riders
Challenging segregation in the South by simply riding on busses and trains in segregated sections
They were violently thrown off
Birmingham
Peaceful protests, broken up by water hoses
Violence shown on national television
March in Washington
March in 1963 to Washington to support a new Civil Rights movement
“I have a Dream Speech”
Bay of Pigs
U.S aided invasion of Cuba by anti-Castro Forces
Failure
Assumed that the rest of the Cubans would join, but they wouldn’t
U.S and USSR come to talks/tensions
Berlin Wall as a result
Cuban Missile Crisis
Question of nuclear weapons in Cuba
On the Brink of Nuclear Disaster
Kennedy assassinated
November 23, 1963; Lee Harvey Oswald; Dallas, Texas; During a Parade
The “Great Society”
Medicare and Medicaid
Health insurance and medical grants to help the elderly , disabled, and
Higher Education Act
Scholarships/loans for college age students
Immigration Act
Getting ride of quotas by country
Higher Education Act
Safety standards for highway manufacturing and design
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibits racial segregation in public facilities
Outlawed standing racial discrimination in voter registration and hiring practices
Malcom X
More radical than Martin Luther King Jr.
Nation of Islam
Gulf of Tonkin
Two U.S Ships attacked
Claimed it was unprovoked
Used It to get power to repel any armed attack on the U.S
Tet Offensive
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.
Democratic Convention in 1968
had a significant amount of protest activity. For eight days, protesters and police battled for control of the streets of Chicago, whilst the Democratic Party met at the convention. Hubert Humphrey won the nomination
Election of 1968
Nixon- Republican Candidate, Humphrey- Democrat Candidate, Wallace- American Independent, Nixon Wins Easily

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