US History since 1877 test 1

US History since 1877 test 1

New South Movement
wanted south to boom like north, if small towns joined together they would prosper, diversify, share cropping, tenant farming, Henry Grady
Wade Davis Bill
50% of white voters in each state had to declare loyalty to union to be readmitted, had to give blacks the right to vote, swear they never took part in the confederacy, congress passed bill but lincoln pocket vetoed it
Ulysses S Grant
election of 1868, won by a landslide, served 2 terms, hated johnson, bad judge of character, many laws passed under him
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
Fired stanton even after tenure of office act passed, house drew up reasons, tried in senate and was not convicted by one vote
Henry Spencer
came up with idea of social darwinism
Impact of Reconstruction
created conservative one party south, state governments small, south became rural/poor, lack of leadership, created weakness
Social Darwinism
19th century idealists, survival of the fittest, laissez faire, social evolution
War Time Reconstruction
10% plan: recognize abolition of slavery, 10% of voters had to declare loyalty to the union, ignored freedmen
Freedmen’s Bureau
had to be renewed every year, built schools, helped find jobs, provided protection, created 14th amendment–defined citizenship, if they ratify this amendment they can rejoin
Black Codes
laws passed by south to control freedmen, social control, not allowed to vote/hold certain jobs/had to live in certain places/ curfews, if you didn’t have a job you went to join, recognized marriages while enslaved, if to young/old to work former owner had to care for you
Radical Reconstruction
southern states placed under military control, governments suspended until black males could vote and 14th amendment ratified, Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner, wanted to punish south, feared plantation elite would come back in to power
Cattlemen
after civil war huge shortage on meat in the east, texans drove animals to kansas and chicago to railroads
Transcontinental Railroad
1860s, linking railway network east to west, set US on path of economic abundance
Little Big Horn
Sioux and Cheyenne defiantly leave reservation, army of 2000 men under Custer were watching them and attacked, Custer was counter attacked and got his men and him killed
JM Chivington
attacked 250 indians under Black Kettle rule for no reason, killing innocent men, women, and children, never prosecuted but forced out of Colorado militia
Henry Bessemer
english, made pure steel–burn carbon impurities for stronger metal, made steel rails for railroads allowing them to go 30x faster
Credit Mobiler
owned by Union pacific railroad, poured money into owners pockets, repaired RR line, construction company, corruption when Ames (congress rep) sold shares to congress at par
Thomas Edison
american, invented: cameras, lightbulbs, photographs, phonographs, had a factory and paid people to come up with ideas
Reconstruction
changing state and society of the former confederacy
Effects of the Civil War
slaves freed, slavery destroyed, union preserved, political dominance of south destroyed, when south left congress north was able to make necessary changes, federal government became involved: tariffs and railroads
John Rockefeller
standard oil, monopoly oil company, vertical/horizontal organization, richest man 1911 and retired and spent the rest of his life being a philanthropist
Andrew Carnegie
steel, vertical/horizontal organization, retired in 1901, pushed alot of people out business, sold his company to US steel investors, built: libraries, music halls, and royal courts
Redeemers
white southern democrats started to take over the southern government again, saving south from evil
Goodnight Loving Trail
last trail made, Texas to Wyoming, cattle drives–short lived after railroads, easy way to transport cattle
John Wilkes Booth
stage actor, assassinated Lincoln 4/14/1865 at Fords Theater in DC, opposed abolition, confederate
Ku Klux Klan
started by Nathan Forrest, ex confederates, started as friends gathering and drinking, used tactics to scare freedmen
KKK Enforcement Acts
Benjamin Butler, squash KKK, allowed military to go get them
Tenure of Office Act
president can’t fire an official without senates approval, Johnson ignored and fired Stanton
Morrill Act of 1862
30,000 acres for each senator/representative in each state, sell land and put that money towards an agriculture college, A&M
Sutters Mill
John Sutler found gold in Cali at his lumber mill by a river, set off gold rush
Carpetbaggers
people who came from north to south to take advantage, southern myth
Scalawags
white southerns who took advantage of the south during reconstruction, traders to their own people
Western Indians
plains-nomads, followed the buffalo, fine with whites passing through, but didn’t like settlers and would fight them
Homestead Act of 1862
if you go west you can obtain 160 acres of land, but you have to make improvements on it to keep it, enabled white men and women to claim free/inexpensive land
Urbanization
agriculture to industrial, people migrate to US for better life and wanted to take part in economic growth
Compromise of 1877
agreement among politicians, Hayes could only be president in exchange for: ending reconstruction, removing federal troops from south
Plessy VS Ferguson
establish seperate but equal, 1/8th black freeman gets on a black train to test the law and gets arrested, “don’t fight movement openly, prove yourself economically and you’ll get your equal rights”
Joint Committee on Reconstruction
created to check on south, sent 15 men to see if they deserved a seat in congress, drafted 14th amendment, while in south noticed: south will rise again attitude, black codes, so they created freedmens bureau
General Amnesty Act of 1872
Pardoned more than 150,000 confederates restoring their right to vote and hold political offices
Civil Rights Act of 1866
granted citizenship and the same right enjoyed by the white citizens to all male persons in the US, Andrew Johnson vetoes but overturned by 2/3 vote in congress
Preemption Act of 1841
160 acres of land for $1.25 offered to public, legalized settlement of federal land after being surveyed
Joseph Glidden
barbed wire, changed the way of farming and territory rights
Alexander Graham Bell
telephone
Charles Goodyear
developed process for more stable rubber
American Federation of Labor
made by craft unions who came from Knights of labor–as that lost strength this gained it, protect harmony among unions, wanted higher wages and job security, founded by Samuel Gompers
Samuel Gompers
cigar maker, founder of AFL–shorter hours, higher wages
Edwin Drakes
pumping/drilling for oil
James Duk
tobacco
Knights of Labor
1869, promoted the working man, leader was Terrance Powderly, rejected socialism/radicalism, wanted 8 hour work days, negotiated with employers, moral laborers, founded by Uriah Stephens, favored political action, open to all except pimps, lawyers, bankers, gamblers, liquor salesmen, etc
Homestead Steel Strike
Carnegie owned it, Frick ran operations, locked out union workers wanting to break them apart, Frick had Pinkerton detective agency come in for security, the workers attacked and had a several day standoff, government sided with Frick and 12 hour work days, union blacklisted, and 500 jobs taken away
Interstate Commerce Commission
1887, regulate railroads and then trucking to insure fair rates over state lines, made in response to pullmans strike
Sherman Anti Trust Act
1890, federal government tries to break up monopolies, anyone who conspires to restrain trade–focused towards unions
Dawes Act
1887, divided communal tribal land and undermined tribal sovereignty, stopped US army efforts to destroy indians, created schools but indians couldn’t understand english, wanted them to adapt to US way of living
Industrialization
1820-1870, economic development where everything began to be made in factories, immigrants provided cheap labor force
Comstock Lode
first US discovery of silver ore under slope of mount davidson
Shawnee Trail
first major route used by cattle trailing, industry to deliver longhorns to midwest
Placer Mining
huge portions of the mountains were washed away. Miners used huge hydraulic hoses to wash dirt through long sloughs to wash out the gold.
Presidential Plan
Johnson, 1865-1867, had less than $2000 you were pardoned, if more you had to right a letter asking, have a constitutional convention abolishing slavery and repudiate confederate debt, said nothing to freedmen, pardoned almost everyone
Dunlop Community
Benjamin Singleton created a community in Kansas, defeated by environment, dry farming, no water after homestead act
Monopolies
single person/enterprise is the only supplier of a certain commodity, lack of competition, quality of products went down while price went up
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
Textile business in NY, 1909 went on strike for higher wages, 1911 a first started killing many worker, in response Frances Perkins enacted fire safety and building codes and stiff penalties
Haymarket Riot
Chicago, railroad workers, police called in used brutality, started police strike, organizers were anarchists–believe in no government, police show up and bomb goes off don’t know which side set it off, horrified middle class, hated unions
Pullman Strike
Illinois, 1894, workers lived on plantations, unions called it debt slavery, tried to reduce wages because of failing economy, workers went on strike, company went to government and they sided with company saying it interfered with the disbursement of mail and that was illegal and forced them to go back to work
Termination Policy
no longer an indian, you are equal to everyone, native americans granted rights and citizenship, made to reduce dependency on bureaucracy, terminated sovereignty of tribes, now had to pay taxes and fall laws
Uriah Stephens
founded knights of labor, wanted to be a baptist minister, instead became a tailer and very involved in politics, ran for the labor party for congress, group wanted to go public and change ceremonies to be less offensive to christians and he did not like that so he left the group