US History Unit 1 Exam Review

US History Unit 1 Exam Review

English Parliament
Passed the Stamp act, Sugar Act, and Intolerable Acts.
Great Compromise
Created a two house legislature; Senate and House of Representatives
Tea Act
Caused the Boston Tea Party; Gave Britain a tea monopoly in America
Patriots
Those colonist that supported American independence
Loyalists
Those colonists that supported America staying part of Great Britain
3/5 Compromise
It was a compromise between the northern states with the southern ones that decided that although slaves were not citizens, each one would count as 3/5 of a man for representation. It got Southern states to ratify the constitution.
Propaganda
information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state’s population
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison’s plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
Boston Massacre
a riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.
Stamp Act
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
James Madison
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution.
Lexington and Concord
April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)
Saratoga
Battle which was the turning point in the Revolutionary War. Convinced the French Navy to help the colonists.
Continental Congress
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Alexander Hamilton
Leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington,
US Constitution
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation. Contained 3 branches: legislative, executive, and judicial.
Bunker Hill
a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed’s Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Minutemen
volunteer militia soldiers who were ready to fight in a moments notice
Paul Revere
American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)
Red Coats
popular term for British regular troops
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Causes of the American Revolution
-Proclamation of 1763 prevents colonists
from moving west
-Parliament taxes colonies to pay British
war debts
-Social Hierarchy
-Colonists protest taxation without
representation
-Propaganda
New England Colonies
Massachusets New Hampshire Connecticut and Rhode Island. They had a short growing season long and cold winters, rocky soil and Forests and economy was based on trading shipping and ship building. And Puritans.
Middle Colonies
New York New Jersey and Pennsylvania. had fertile soil moderate winters warm summers and a good growing season and economy was based on farming. And Quakers.
Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; very rural with large farms; plantations; with use of slave labor; tobacco, cotton, indigo, and rice were grown with tobacco being the largest cash crop.
French and Indian War
The War between England and France that took place in American (among other places) the Native Americans fought on both sides during the war. After the war, the natives were treated very badly by the British. Also, the British began taxing Americans to pay for the war.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain, primarily written by Thomas Jefferson. Motivated patriots to join the cause.
Samuel Adams
American Revolutionary leader and patriot. Leader of sons of liberty who spread propaganda against the British. Also, one of the individuals sought by the British during Lexington and Concord
tariff
A tax on imported goods
Salem Witch Trials
1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a Massachussetts Bay puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress. Spectral evidence was used frequently. 19 people were executed.
Pontiac’s Rebellion
1763 – An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Stono Rebellion
An uprising of slaves in South Carolina in 1739, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws. The largest slave uprising in the colonies.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation. Helped to motivate Americas toward the patriotic cause.
American Crisis
series of essays, printed as pamphlets and throughout press in colonies. In it the author appeals to patriots to service their country for the people. Written by Thomas Paine
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court’s power of Judicial Review.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed by Samuel Adams after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used both peaceful and violent means of protest
John Marshall
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review. He was a federalist and believed in a large federal government.
George Washington
Commander of Continental Army, later the first president of the United States
Louisiana Purchase
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million