US History Unit 1 Study Guide

US History Unit 1 Study Guide

Virginia Company
A joint-stock company based in Virginia in 1607. founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: allowed for all Englishmen to have the same life in the New World as they had in England. 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown
Tobacco
Primary staple crop of early Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. It is the leading cause of premature death and cancer in the United States
Powhatan
Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father of Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith’s fate in the hands of his warriors. Pocahontas saved John Smith and the whole Jamestown colony. Pocahontas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until Powhatan’s death
House of Burgesses
The first representative assembly in the New World. It was established in Virginia in 1619, and set up by England to make laws and levy taxes. England could veto its legistlative acts. Other colonies adapted it later
Bacon’s Rebellion
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in efforts to gain more land. Afterwards, slavery became more common in the colonies
Slavery
The practice of being owned by another person and being made to work without pay
Middle Passage
The journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas. It was called Middle Passage because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route
Colombian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world after Columbus’s voyages. Took place between Europe, Asia, Africa and America
Christopher Colombus
“In 1492, Colombus sailed the ocean blue.” he was a Spanish explorer who discovered the New World. This allowed Europeans to further explore the new world, colonize, create trade routes and more
Triangular Trade
{the transatlantic trading network} A three-way system of trade during 1600-1800s. Slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas
Quebec
First permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain
Town Meetings
A purely democratic form of government in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town’s voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws
Puritans
A group of religious people who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay
New England Colonies Economy
Based on shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small-scale subsistence farming, and, eventually, manufacturing
Middle Colonies Economy
cash crop, carpentry, milling, lumbering, manufacturing, mining
Southern Colonies Economy
depended on agriculture, small farms and large plantations, slaves were main source of labor
Ben Franklin
highly respected scientist, diplomat, leader. one of the wealthiest men in Pennsylvania. helped found UPENN, served as agent in London and Pennsylvania, became convinced the colonies needed to revolt. he served as ambassador to France during the war, helped write the declaration of independence, constitution, and helped negotiate the peace treaty ending the revolution
The Great Awakening
Major religious revival started in the 1730s. Led by Jonathan Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, and gave women more active roles in religion
Half-Way Covenant
Puritan church document established in 1662 that allowed partial membership rights to people not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the “elect” members of the church from the regular members
Mayflower Compact
a document written by the Pilgrims in 1620 establishing themselves as a political society and setting guidelines for self-government
King Phillip’s War
War between the Native American tribes (Pequat, Narragansett, Wampanoag, Nipmuk) of New England and British colonists. took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. King Philip lead the natives and the war ended Indian resistance in New England
New Amsterdam
a settlement established by the Dutch near the Hudson River and the southern end of Manhattan Island. Present day New York city
Founding of Rhode Island
Roger Williams was the founder. He established this colony after being banished for disagreeing with the Puritans. He believed everyone should have religious freedom
John Smith
English explorer who helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter
Salem Witch Trials
1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations (mainly against women) in a puritan village. Marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress
Royal Colony
A colony under direct control of the king
Massachusetts Colony
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony
Jonathan Edwards
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed religious interest in America (1703-1758). Wrote “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
Mercantilism
an economic system to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests. The main idea was that a country should sell more goods (to other countries) than what it buys
Spanish Conquest
the conquering of the Native Americans by the Spanish