US History Unit 8

What was the Cold War?
A conflict between countries with no actual fighting
What was the main goal of the United States?
To keep peace throughout the world
In what ways did the Marshall Plan encourage European recovery?
Lent money to 17 countries. The money was used to rebuild bridges, factories, hospitals and schools
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How did NATO and the Warsaw Pact divide Europe?
By creating alliances and packs with different countries. Western European countries were with NATO, Eastern European Countires were with the Warsaw Pack
What changes occurred in Asia after WW2?
Japan was occupied by the US military until 1952 and India and Pakistan gained independence
What changes occurred in the Middle East after WW2?
The U.N divided Palestine into 2 states. On May 14, 1948 Jews announced the creation of the state Israel. War soon broke out
What does the Economic and Social Council do?
Responsible for promoting higher standards of livingg, and full employment
Who were the candidates for President in 1948?
Truman, Dewey, Thurman and Wallace
Why did pollsters expect President Truman to lose the election in 1948?
Prices were rising quickly but wages were not rising. There were so many strikes
How did the Korean War end?
The chinese pushed the allied forces back and the combating forces fought back along the hill tops, and was settled along the 38th parallel, with no peace treaty
Why did President Truman oppose an attack on China?
He did not want a war involving the Soviet Union because he feared the atomic warfare
What events in the early 1950s showed Americans concern about Communist influence in the US?
Communist spies- to build atomic weapons and passing top secret material to soviet union
During what year did North Korea make their farthest advance into South Korea
September 1950
Harry Truman
Won re election in the presidential election of 1948
Thomas Dewey
Was the reported winner of the 1948 presidential election, but actually lost in a close race
Strom Thurmond
The Conservative Democrat nominated for president in 1948
38th Parallel
The line of latitude that effectively separated North Korea from South Korea
Douglas MacArthur
General and leader of American forces in Korea; Fired by President Truman
Julius Rosenberg
One of the husband and wife spy team convicted of selling atomic secrets to the soviet union
Alger Hiss
State Department worker charged with passing top secret material to Soviet Agents
Joseph McCarthy
Republican Senator who accused citizens and prominent Americans being communist
Why did Americans vote overwhelmingly for Eisenhower?
Because he represented firmness, friendliness and honesty
What were some achievements of the Eisenhower administration?
Department of Heath, welfare, federal aid, highway, NASA, national defense, and education act
What were 2 important vents in the fight for civil rights?
Desregration of schools and Rosa Parks on the bus
What did the Supreme Court rule in Brown v Board of Education of Topeka?
State sanctioned segration of public schools was a violation of the 14th amendment therefore being unconstitutional
What was the arms race?
Competition for supremacy in the nuclear warfare, between US, the soviet union and allies
In what ways did the Cold War intensify during Eisenhowers administration?
Eisenhower maintained pressure on the Soviet Union during the Cold War, gave priority to inexpensive nuclear weapons and reduced the other forces to save money
How did many Americans change their ways of living in the 1950s?
They moved to suburbs, dded children to their families and bought homes
Why did many americans move to the suburbs in the 1950s?
to purchase homes and to start a family
What is one way television influenced Americans?
Families spent less time in the evening reading, and gathered arounf the tv instead
What contribution did Jackie Robinson make toward equality in the US?
He was the first African American to enter the Major League Baseball, and he broke that segregation barrier
Dwight D Eisenhower
Won the 1952 presidency by a landslide
Adlai Stevenson
Governor of Illinois who lost the 1952 presidential election
Linda Brown
Elementary student who sparked the Brown vs Board of Education court case
Thurgood Marshall
Represented the Brown family before the Supreme Court
Rosa Parks
Arrested for refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white man
Nikita Khrushchev
Leader of the Soviet Union during the U – 2 spy plane incident
Gary Powers
US pilot shot down over the Soviet Union while photographing military bases
Name of the first planned community; located in New York
Sidney Poitier
The first African American actor to win the Best Actor Award
Who became the first american to Orbit the earth? How long after the first cosmonaut went to space did this happen?
John Glenn and 1 year
When did the construction of the Berlin Wall begin?
August 1961
What happened in November of 1963?
JFK is assassinated, and Lyndon B Johnson becomes president
How did televised debates affect the presidential election of 1960?
Voters could see that Kennedy looked healthy and Nixon did not
How did the 1960 election differ from earlier elections?
Was the first election to be swayed by televised events
Why did the Soviet Union order the building of the Berlin Wall?
To stop Soviets from escaping
Where did the US confront communism?
Russia and China
What discovery set off the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962?
Learning that the Soviet Union had installed nuclear missiles that could destroy much of the east coast
What did Khrushchev and Kennedy agree to do to settle the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Cuba agreed to withdrawl the Soviet Missile sites there and the US promised not to invade Cuba and to remove its own missiles from Turkey
Dean Rusk
Secretary of State during the Cuban missile crisis
East Berlin
Capital of East Germany; site of the building of the Berlin Wall
Bay of Pigs
Site of a failed US invasion which attempted to overthrow Fidel Castro
Richard Nixon
Republican who lost the 1960 presidential election
Democrat who won the 1960 presidential election
How did the Supreme Court expand the rights of individuals?
Could not force children to say a prayer, every person accused for a serious crime had a right to a lawyer
What was the effect of the Peace Corps?
It helped other countries build sorority while stopping the spread of communism
How did competition with the Soviet Union affect the US space program?
The US space program, spent 20 – 40 billion dollars towards the space program
What was President Kennedys goal in funding the space program?
To put a man on the moon before 1970
What are some methods that civil rights protesters used to battle segregation?
Sit – ins, Freedom of Speech and Rides
What was the goal of the sit – ins and Freedom Rides?
To peacefully protest about the civil right
How did tv affect civil rights protests in Birmingham and other cities?
Everyone saw that the police were treating African Americans and joib in on the movement
What event did the march on Washington celebrate?
The 100th anniversary of the emancipation problem at the Lincoln Memorial
How did Kennedys Assassination affect the country?
The country was left in shock and saddness
What did the Warren Commissions determine?
That the assassination was a one man job
What charges do the Alabama clergy make against King and the demonstrations?
He is arrested and sent to jail
Why does King believe that African Americans cannot wait for equal rights?
They have been waiting for 340 years
John F Kennedy
His administration ushered in the NEW FRONTIER; was assassinated in November 1963
Yuri Gagaria
A Soviet cosmonaut; first man in space
John Glenn
The first american to be sent to space
Robert Kennedy
The Attorney General during the Kennedy Administration; sent federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders
James Meredith
An African American who successfully enrolled at the University of Mississippi
Martin Luther King Jr
Southern minister who helped to lead the protests and desegregation movement
Birmingham, Alabama
Ground zero from many protests and marches in favor of desegreation
Lyndon B. Johnson
Assumed the presidency after the assassination of Kennedy
Lee Harvey Oswald
Determined to be the lone assassin of Kennedy
Jack Ruby
Dallas businessman who killed Oswald
Earl Warren
The chief justice appointed to a commission to determine if Oswald acted alone or with others to assassinate the president
The peace Corps was developed to aid poor areas by improving living conditions
The arms race was a competition between China and Japan to place weapons in strategic places
Truman opposed attacking China because he feared drawing – in the Soviet Union and starting a nuclear war
The Berlin Wall was symbolic of how Western nations were separated from those controlled by the Soviet Union
Freedom Rides and sit – ins were peaceful protests to bring about desegregation
Kennedys Plan for his administration was known as the New Frontier
The 38th parallel splits North Korea and South Korea
The 1956 presidential election was the first to televise the debates
The main goal of the United Nations was to act as a war tribunal council

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