US History Vocabulary List

US History Vocabulary List

Unalienable
natural rights that belong to everyone and cannot be taken away
Quartering
Giving someone a place to stay
Inaugurate
To swear into office
Cabinet
Serve as the head advisers for the president
Tariff
A tax on an imported good
Import
Buy goods from foreign countries
Export
To sell or transfer goods
Interpret
To make sense or understand
Neutral
To not side with anyone
Foreign Policy
A policy governing international relations
Sedition
rebellion or resistance against the government
Alien
A foreign immigrant
Political Party
Groups that seek to attain political power within government
Radical
A person who takes extreme political positions
Unconstitutional
Something that goes against the constitution
Judicial Review
The supreme court has the final say in deciding if something is constitutional or not
Impressment
Seizing by force
Embargo
Act that said American ships were no longer allowed to sail to foreign ports; it also closed American ports to British ships
Industrial Revolution
Time period where factory machines replaced hand tools and manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work
Factory System
Method of production that brought workers and machines Together into one building
Interchangeable Parts
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
Rebellion
to rebel against someone or an army
Canal
long and narrow strip of water made for boats or for irrigation
Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Sectionalism
a partiality for some particular place
Doctrine
a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
Spoils System
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
Nullification
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state’s opinion, violates the Constitution.
Secession
formal separation from an alliance or federation
Inflation
an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy
Depression
A severe economic slump
Manifest Destiny
The belief that the united states was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean
Cession
the transfer of land from one country to another
Immigrant
a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there
Emigrant
someone who leaves one country to settle in another
Famine
a severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death
Prejudice
a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
Transcendentalism
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
Civil Disobedience
disobedience in the people
Temperance
abstaining from excess
Strike
deliver a sharp blow, as with the hand, fist, or weapon
Abolition
Movement to end slavery
Platform
any military structure or vehicle bearing weapons
Confederation
the act of forming an alliance or confederation
Cavalry
troops trained to fight on horseback
Emancipation
the freeing of slaves
Income tax
money you get back at the end of the year
Civil rights
rights to the people, to civilians
Sharecropping
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
Debt
the state of owing something (especially money)
Rural
living in or characteristic of farming or country life
Urban
relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area
indentured servant
Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America
cash crop
Farm crop raised to be sold for money
diversity
variety
agriculture
same as farming; The raising of crops and animals for human use
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Indigo
a blue-violet color
Colony
a body of people who settle far from home but maintain ties with their homeland
Enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that accepted science and arts
Revenue
money collected by the government
boycott
refuse to buy
Militia
civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army
Artillery
an army unit that uses big guns
Revolution
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
Mercenary
a person hired to fight for another country than their own
Ally
a friendly nation
Bayonet
a knife that can be fixed to the end of a rifle and used as a weapon
Blockade
a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy
Treaty
a formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries
Privateer
a privately owned warship commissioned to prey on the commercial shipping or warships of an enemy nation
Guerrillas
small bands of fighters who weaken the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks
Representative
a person who represents others
Pacifist
someone opposed to violence as a means of settling disputes
Confederation
the act of forming an alliance or confederation
Republic
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
Compromise
an accommodation in which both sides make concessions
Federalism
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Ratify
approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation
Amendment
A change to the Constitution
Monarchy
state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen
Aristocracy
the most powerful members of a society
Popular Sovereignty
rule by the people
Sovereign
a nation’s ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Limited Government
The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens
Individual Rights
Personal liberties and privileges
Electors
people elected by the voters in a presedential election as members of the electoral college
Impeachment
a formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
Habeas Corpus
a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
Suffrage
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution