W.G. Ch.4 Test Vocab.

W.G. Ch.4 Test Vocab.

migration
movement of people from place to place.
ethnic group
made up of people who a share common language, history, and place of origin, or combination of these elements.
culture region
area that includes different countries with certain traits in common.
culture hearth
early center of civilization, or the world’s first civilizations arose.
death rate
the number of deaths per year for every 1,000 people.
birthrate
the number of births per year for every 1,000 people.
natural increase
growth rate, of a population as the difference between an areas birthrate and its death rate.
zero population growth
the birthrate and death rate are equal.
doubling time
the number of years it takes a population double in size.
population distribution
the pattern of human settlement.
population density
the average number of people living on a square mile or square kilometer of land.
refugees
people who flee to another country to escape persecution.
culture
the way of life a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs.
language families
large groups of languages having similar roots.
cultural diffusion
the process of spreading new knowledge and skill from one culture to another.
unitray system
government gives all key powers to national or central government.
federal system
government divides the power of government between the national government and state or provincial governments.
autocracy
rule by one person.
oligarchy
rule by a few people, small group holds power.
democracy
rule by many people.
traditional economy
habit and custom determine the rules for all economic activity.
market economy
individuals and private groups make decisions about what to produce.
free enterprise
the idea that private individuals or groups have the right to own property or businesses and make a profit with only limited government interference.
mixed economy
one in which the government supports and regulates free enterprise through decisions.
command economy
the government owns or directs the means of production land, labor, capital, and business managers and controls the distribution of goods.
natural resources
the elements form earth that are not made by people but can be used by them for food, fuel, or other necessities.
renewable resources
cannot be used up or can be replaced naturally or grown again in a relatively short amount of time.
nonrenewable resources
cannot be replaced, such as minerals and fossil fuel.
developed countries
countries having much technology and manufacturing.
developing countries
countries working toward greater manufactoing and technology.
industrilization
the spread of industry.
tariff
tax
quota
number limit
free trade
the removal of trade barriers so that goods can flow freely among countries.
pollution
the release of unclean or impure elements into the air, water, and land.
Acidic rain
eats away at the suface of buildings, kills fish, and can even destroy entire forests.