Washington State history test answers
He explored Puget Sound and convinced the United States government not to give up their claim to Puget Sound.
England. Seeking a route to the Pacific. Was the first to cross North America north of Mexico. Proved there was no Northwest Passage.
England. Mapped and charted the Columbia river from its headwaters to the mouth. Proved the extent of the US claim.
John Jacob Astor
Created one of the largest fur businesses, the American Fur Company. He bought skins from western fur traders and trappers who became known as montain men. Astoria was named after him.
Wilson Price Hunt
American explorer who established fort Astoria and led the second U.S. crossing of America
Bruno de Heceta
Spain- He took some land, Discovered Colombia River, first European to land on Washington
Bodega y Quadra
Spain-He represented Spain at Nootka Sound
Lewis and Clark
This was the first United States expedition to cross North America and it proved that it was possible to cross the Rocky Mountains on foot,
American navigator who twice circumnavigated the globe and who discovered the Columbia River (1755-1806)
England. Took possession of Vancouver. Made maps, notes, (Mt. Rainer)
He discovered and named Mt. Olympus
England. Found Juan de Fuca but gave credit to Juan de Fuca. Traded furs, made maps/charts.
Russian. Danish explorer who explored the northern Pacific Ocean for the Russians and discovered the Bering Strait (1681-1741)
Spain-First European explorer to see the Washington coast.
English- He discovered a cure for scurvy and discovered there was a market for furs in Asia.
Know what types of people generally sponsored explorations and what types of skills those people who went on these explorations generally possessed.
Sent out byGovernment officials,Companies,business men, nations and merchants. Brought Navigators, astronomers, natural scientists, map makers, artists, and seamen.
Wanted to regain position in world affairs, geographical knowledge, spread Catholic faith, and gold.
Desired to become powerful in Europe, expand their trade in Asia, and establish a fur company
The United States
Needed new trading partners, and establish trade in Asia,.
Need new trading partners, want to establish Asian trade, and wanted to fin the Northwest Passage-link the empire to London.
Know what caused the Nootka Sound Controversy, how it was resolved and why it was important to the United States.
England and Spain had settlements in the Northwest and both of them were having problems with the other being too close. They made a compromise with each other stating England would not fish near Spanish settlements, Spain would leave British activities alone, and England would respect Spanish settlements. This was important to the United States because it gave them and Britain had ownership to the land between Russian America and Spanish California.
Hudson’s Bay Company
British- Founded in 1670 in London, most important of the 4 companies, it was in the Pacific Northwest as early as 1821 and remained there until late 1840’s-early 1850’s, important outpost was Fort Vancouver which was the social, political and economical center for the PNW. Closest thing to a local government in the region at that time.
Rocky Mt. Fur Company
Founded in St. Louis in 1822, the mountain men and their rendevous and most importantly, established a US presence in the region. Then Mountain men became trailblazers and guides.
Pacific Fur Company
Run by John Jacob Astor, established Fort Astoria which gave a American influence in the region.
Had Fort George and merged with the Hudson Bay Company in 1821, David Thompson lead trade in 1807
a meeting planned at a certain time and place
Fur traders and trappers who lived by themselves in the mountains and were hired by the Rocky Mountain fur Company.
head of the Hudson’s Bay Company he decided to expand to the Pacific Northwest, decided HBC outposts should be self-sufficient
Chief Factor at Fort Vancouver, he was the closest thing to a governor in the PNW.
A Catholic Missionary in the PNW. Nothing is really said about him. Sorry ;P
He was the first Protestant Missionary to come to the Pacific Northwest. Arrived in 1834 settled in the Willamette Valley and ministered to white settlers instead of missionaries. Wrote letters home and advertised the PNW.
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
A Protestant missionary couple in the PNW. Marcus proved that a 4 wheeled wagon could be moved over the Rocky Mountains and he provided publicity for the PNW. Both were killed in the Whitman Massacre.
Article of clothing enabling the fur trade to become profitable
Top hats and other garments
What did the missionaries accomplish in the Pacific Northwest
They started the first religious center in the frontier, established Whitman college and encouraged other missionaries to go west.
Why was Fort Vancouver important to the Pacific Northwest?
It was the headquarters of the Hudson Bay Company. It was also a main stop where settlers could get goods.
What did the mountain men accomplish?
They opened paths up for others to follow while also acting as guides.
Why did the Catholic missionaries tend to be more successful than the Protestant missionaries?
They could travel freely because they were single, were well trained and ordained, were less shocked at Indian behavior, used symbols that the Indians could understand and relate to. They also dressed differently to single themselves out as Catholic Priests.
Opened first hospital in Seattle, opened a fish-packing plant, gave Seattle its name.
David and Arthur Denny
Wanted to sell lumber to California, moved to Elliot Bay because of deeper water. Nothing majority important
Industrialist from Ohio built first sawmill in Seattle and his was the first to use steam power, developed skid row, and was the first mayor of Seattle.
It was believed it was the destiny of the United States to own the west.
Where the Denny’s moved from. The currents were unpredictable, the water to shallow, the cliff to steep. Alki meant by and by.
Where David and Arthur Denny moved to because of deeper waters.
What were the conditions in the United States in the 1830’s and 1840’s that would have enticed people to move to Oregon?
The United States was a stable nation, the population had increased by one third and was 17 million, it was overcrowded, new immigrants arriving, and the people were confident and believed that they could achieve anything. Single person who went to Oregon could get 320 acres of free land if he would stake a claim and live on it for 4 years. Married couples would get double the amount.The land was also said to be fertile and the area had very mild winters.
What were the terms of the Oregon Donation Land Act?
Single person who went to Oregon could get 320 acres of free land if he would stake a claim and live on it for 4 years. Married couples would get double the amount. Blacks were not included.
St. Josephs and Independence
Places where people would jump on the Oregon trail. They were right on or near by the Missouri River, they were truly the last signs of civilization.
A 12 mile valley through the Rocky Mountains. Without this, there would have been no way for them to migrate to Oregon.
The river in Washington that settlers rafted there wagons down. The trip down the river was dangerous and expensive. Many cities got started along the river because of the amount of people waiting for a ride down the river.
It basically signaled that the trip was over. This is where most people got off the Columbia River and headed south. This played a major part in the Oregon Trail. Also a place were alot of settlers settled down at.
What were the good things that happened on the Oregon Trail?
People developed friendships, much singing and dancing and other activities by the campfires, and their mail was deposited back east.
What were the bad things that happened on the Oregon Trail?
Flooding, disease (cholera), personality conflicts, and accidents.
How long did it take to cross the Oregon Trail?
15 to 28 weeks.
You will need to know what caused the Whitman massacre, who was involved, and what was the long term significance of it?
The main reasons that it happened was that the Indians kept seeing white settlers invading there land, they would blame everything bad the whites did on Marcus Whitman, and the small pox break out that killed a bunch of Indians but not as many white settlers. There are to many reasons for me to write down. Anyways, they blamed Marcus for the deaths and so they killed him his wife and I think 12 others, they took the others captive. The Hudson Bay Company payed for there release. In the long run, the Whitman Massacre created a long term distrust for the Indians, publicity for Oregon, and forced the US government to grant territorial rights to Oregon.