Week 3 Assignment

Scientists believe they know the average global temperature over the last 160,000 years. Which property of the ice core samples from Antarctica provides this information?

the thickness
the carbon dioxide concentration
the 1H/2H ratio
the temperature

*Think about which of these would be a component of rain and snow.

the 1H/2H ratio
Neither N2 nor O2 are greenhouse gases because

a. N2 and O2 react with one another, producing N2O2 when exposed to infrared radiation.
b. their overall electric charge distribution does not change when they vibrate.
c. infrared radiation causes their bonds to break.
d. their atmospheric concentrations are not changed by human activity.

**Remember that greenhouse gases have a change in bond structure when interacting with infrared radiation.

their overall electric charge distribution does not change when they are vibrate
What international agreement attempted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions?

Kyoto Protocol
Montreal Protocol
Oslo Accords
Nuremburg Treaty

*Remember that Montreal Protocol is about the ozone layer.

Kyoto Protocol
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The greenhouse and enhanced greenhouse effects refer to the return of approximately ___ percent and greater than ___ percent of the heat radiated by Earth.

40; 40
50; 50
60; 60
80; 80

*See page 110 for a definition of enhanced greenhouse effect.

80;80
Determine the molar mass for fluoxetine (C16H16F3NO), also known as Prozac®.

279.3 g/mol
281.3 g/mol
295.3 g/mol
297.1 g/mol

*Remember to use the periodic table and number of each atom in the molecule to find molar mass.

295.3 g/mol
Predict the geometry of nitrous oxide, N2O (atomic order N Picture N Picture O).

linear
bent
trigonal pyramidal
trigonal planar

*There are two atoms and no lone pairs on the central atom.

Linear
Which explanation accounts for the fact that, on average, cloudy nights are warmer than clear nights?

Clouds reflect light incoming from the moon.
H2O does not absorb infrared energy.
Clouds are composed of water vapor and H2O is a strong greenhouse gas.
Clouds have a high concentration of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion.

*Think about what clouds are made of and how that interacts with IR radiation.

Clouds are composed of water vapor and H2O is a strong greenhouse gas.
The greenhouse effect refers to the process by which

a. atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen absorb heat radiated by Earth.
b. atmospheric nitrogen absorbs ultraviolet radiation radiated by Earth
c.atmospheric gases trap and return infrared radiation radiated by Earth.
d. greenhouse gases absorb ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, warming the molecules.

*Remember that it is the warmth of the earth that is being trapped.

Atmospheric gases trap and return infrared radiation radiated by Earth.
The O-to-O-to-O bond angle in an ozone (O3) molecule is not exactly 120° because

a.ozone molecules are linear so the bond angle is 180°.
b. ozone molecules are tetrahedral so the bond angle is approximately 109°.
c.the nonbonding electron pair occupies greater space than the bonding pairs.
d.the electrons in the double bond occupy more space that the nonbonding electron pair.

*Remember that lone electrons have a larger presence that bonded electrons.

the nonbonding electron pair occupies greater space than the bonding pairs.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued a report in 2007 that attached probabilities to the predictions and statements made. Which prediction/statement was considered “Very Unlikely”?

a. Human-caused emissions are the main factor causing warming since 1950.
b. Arctic sea ice thickness declined about 40% during late summer to early autumn in recent decades
c. The observed warming over the past 100 years is due solely to climatic variability.
d. In most of the areas in the Northern Hemisphere, precipitation has increased

*See Table 3.6 for 2007 IPCC conclusions.

The observed warming over the past 100 years is due solely to climatic variability.
Octane (C8H18) is one of the principal components of gasoline. How many moles of CO2 are produced during the combustion of 3.0 mol of octane?
Unbalanced equation: C8H18 + O2 → CO2 + H2O

3.0
8.0
24
26

*Remember to balance the equation then use those coefficients as a mole ratio.

24
The history of average global temperature for the last 160,000 years is derived from isotopic analysis of ice layers in Antarctica. Scientists study the ______ ratio in ______.

14C/12C; CH4
1H/2H; H2O
12C/14C; CO2
16C/18O; CO2

*Think about which of these would give information about rain and snow.

1H/2H; H2O
Which conclusion was considered “very likely” in the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change?

a. Human-caused emissions are the main factor causing warming since 1950.
b. The observed warming of the past 100 years is due solely to climate variability.
c. The Arctic Sea ice thickness decreased approximately 40% during late summer/early fall.
d. Summer droughts have increased.

*See Table 3.6 for 2007 IPCC conclusions.

Human-caused emissions are the main factor causing warming since 1950
Which substances are regulated by the Kyoto Protocol?
I. argon
II. carbon dioxide
III. nitrogen
IV. nitrous oxide
V. sulfur hexafluoride

a. I, II, and III only
b. I and III only
c. II, IV, and V only
d. II and V only

*Remember that atoms or molecules of a single element do not contribute to warming.

II, IV, and V only
The Industrial Revolution is a key point in the Earth’s atmospheric history because

a. prior to that time large deposits of petroleum and coal were not being used as energy sources.
b. the first atmospheric studies were conducted at that time.
c. spectrometers that could measure molecular response to infrared radiation were developed at that time.
d. the first aircraft that could be used to collect atmospheric samples were developed at that time.

*Remember that it is combustion of fossil fuels that facilitated the Industrial Revolution.

Prior to that time large deposits of petroleum and coal were not being used as energy sources
In order to make useful predictions, which factors must be accounted for by climatic models?
I. Aerosol Emissions
II. Land Use
III. Solar Irradiance

a. II only
b. II and III only
c. I and III only
d. I, II, and III only

*Remember that climatic models must take many factors into account.

I, II, and III only
In their fourth and most recent report published in 2007, the vast majority of scientists agreed on several key points. Which of the following is NOT one of those points?

a. If the rate of greenhouse gas emissions is not curtailed, our water resources, food supply, and even our health will suffer.
b. Human activities (primarily the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation) are responsible for much of the recent warming.
c. The Earth is getting warmer.
d. All of the above were mentioned as key points.

*See Table 3.6 for 2007 IPCC conclusions.

All of the above were mentioned as key points
Which of the following are ways that aerosols may affect climate?

a. Scattering incoming radiation
b. Nucleation of clouds
c. Absorbing incoming radiation
d. All of the above

*Remember that aerosols have a wide and varied interaction with other components of the atmosphere.

All of the above
What, approximately, is the highest concentration of CO2 measured in the Earth’s atmosphere in modern times?

a. 4000 ppm
b. 400 ppm
c. 40 ppm
d. 4.0 ppm

*Remember that the concentration of CO2 before the industrial revolution was about 280 ppm.

400 ppm

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