west civ mid term

west civ mid term

city life.
To the peoples of the ancient world, the characteristic manifestations of civilization—government, literature, science, and art—were necessarily products of:
Catalhöyük
Although many prehistoric settlements are known, one of the earliest of these in modern-day Turkey is
nomadic, moving incessantly in search of limited food
Before 11,000 B>C>E>, virtually all human societies were:
was a momentous revolution that made stable settlements possible
The switch from subsistence by food gathering to food production
9500 B.C.E.
Jericho, one of the world’s oldest villages, emerged as a seasonal settlement around
Sumer
The initial shift from village to city inhabitation took place in Mesopotamia, known to the Greeks as “the Land between rivers” and to modern historians as
the establishment of first local, and then long-distance, trade routes throughout the Near East.
Which of the following was an important element in the development of early settlements?
they controlled a large proportion of land. they
employed the largest number of men, women and children.they dominated local and foreign trade, they controlled the economy through ownership of warehouses
Temples were central to Sumerian city life because
included many gods, with a different god worshiped in each city-state.
The common religion of the Sumerians
able to acquire prestige and power as a lugal (“big man”).
An individual who successfully led the city-state’s army in battles was
subdued Sumer and exerted influence from Ethiopia to the Indus Valley
Sargon of Akkad (c. 2350 B.C.E.) is significant because he
at the same time as that of ancient Sumer
The civilization that emerged in ancient Egypt arose
constructed by thousands of peasant workers who were not slaves.
The great Pyramids of Giza, built in the fourth Dynasty, were
to provide the dead with all they would need in the afterlife
The Egyptians developed elaborate tombs and burial techniques
Both enjoyed significant political and cultural interactions
Which comparison between Egypt and Mesopotamian civilizations is false?
iron slowly replaced bronze as the primary component of tools and weapons.
During the first millennium B.C.E.:
linguistic and cultural patterns found in India, the Near East, Europe, and perhaps the Far East.
“Indo-European,” as used in historical or anthropological texts, refers to
New Kingdom Egypt and the Hittite empire
During the Late Bronze age (1500-1200 B.C.E.) in the ancient Near east, the two great empires powers were:
their opponents soon copied them and used protective armor
The Mitannians introduced lighter chariots to carry archers, but
foreigners took over government in northern Egypt and acted like pharaohs
the invaders maintained their connections with the Aegean, Syria, and Palestine
the weakened government in the south lost control of Nubian (present-day Sudan).
some Hyksos rulers incorporated the name of the god Ra into their own names
During the Hyksos period in Egypt (seventeenth-sixteenth centuries B.C.E.):
Hatshetsut
The Eighteenth Dynasty in Egypt produced many strong pharaohs, among them:
the new pharaoh rejected his predecessor” beliefs and changed his name.
When Akhenaten died and was succeeded by Tutankhamen:
monotheism in religious practices
Akhenaten represents one of the earliest moves, in Western history, toward
the legendary or prehistoric component of Greek civilization
“Aegean civilization” was long thought to have been:
the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization
Many small kingdoms arose in the Levant during the early Iron age as a result of
the Bible’s composite nature means that each biblical book should be analyzed within its particular context
The Hebrew Bible is an unparalleled historical source that describes the cultural practices and theological development of the Hebrew people. However, most historians believe that:
the idea of Israel as a unified nation, fulfilling god’s promises
King David’s rule was significant in establishing
acquiring a deserved reputation for cruelty and savagery
Assurbanipal II, king of Assyria, has the distinction of
allowed self-rule and religious freedom to conquered people
Unlike other rulers, Cyrus of Persia (559-529 B.C.E.):
of a Day of Judgment
One belief that other Western religions took from Zoroastrianism is the idea
one of suspicion and appeasement
The relationship of the Greeks to their gods was:
provide evidence for the heroic ideal of late dark Age Greece
The Iliad and the Odyssey
a collective group or community organized around a city
The Greek polis was
athletic contests honoring the gods
Panhellenic festivals in ancient Greece included:
the men who took part began to demand a role in politics
Since every polis needed Hoplites
were excluded from politics
During the Archaic Age, respectable aristocratic women
neighborhood.
Democracy originated in Greece from the idea of the demos, which literally means
Solon.
The origins of Greek democracy can be identified, in part, in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat
depended on the enslaved labor of helots
Sparta:
a revolt instigated by the Ionian Greeks against the Persians
The Persian Wars were begun by:
abandon the city of Athens and let the Persians burn it
During the second Persian War, Themistocles persuaded his fellow Athenians to
the end of the Persian wars and the beginning of the Peoloponnesian war.
The period of time known as the “Golden Age of classical Greece” was bounded in time by:
because of the growing power of Athens, and the fear and envy this inspired in Sparta
According to the historian Thyucydides, the Peloponnesian War began
goodness, truth, and justice are not absolutes, but vary according to the needs and interests of human beings.
The Sophist claim that “Man is the measure of all things” means
that truth is real and absolute standards of goodness and virtue do exist.
Socrates’ aim was to show
Corinthian
The _____War represented the beginning of the end of Greek dominance
cultural empire.
Alexander the Great founded a great empire that might be described as a
The independent temper of Greek political life made unity impossible
Why couldn’t the Greek city-states unite during the fourth century B.C.E.?
realistic and alive
Hellenistic sculpture is best described as
to establish a just society
A philosophical concern of Plato’s was
a meritocracy
At outlined in the Republic, Plato’s ideal form of government is best described as
to act moderately in all things
Aristotle argued that good conduct is virtuous conduct and that virtue resides in aiming
reorganization of the Macedonian army
Philip II of Macedon’s early success had much t do with his
the Olympic Games every four years
The Macedonians were regarded by the Greeks as little more than barbarians, but they did engage in one activity, _________, that indicates that they were, in fact, Greek
to invade Persia
The ultimate aim of the military and political policies of Philip II was
so many legends grew up around him during his lifetime
Alexander the Great is a difficult figure for historians to evaluate because
Afghanistan
The beginning of the end of Alexander’s conquests was his inability to fully subdue
a revival of ancient traditions associated with the pharaohs
Macedonian rule in Egypt was characterized by
he believed that the earth revolves around the sun
Aristarchus of Samos was unusual among Hellenistic astronomers because
it was cultural rather than linked directly to a particular imperial power
Hellenistic cosmopolitanism differed from Persian and Roman cosmopolitanism because
was more fertile than ancient Greece
In terms of geography and natural resources, the Italian peninsula
Etruscans, skilled metal workers and artists, lived there
Prior to the establishment of Rome as the dominant state in Italy
contracts, marriages and citizenship were valid across Latium
The “Latin right” of the early Romans guaranteed that
expanded slowly and extended the Latin Right to many of the cities it conquered
During the early Roman Republic, Rome
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 B.C.E. represent
the Roman constitution essentially ensure oligarchic rule.
In the early Roman Republic, Rome was technically a democracy but
had absolute power over his family, up to and including the power of life and death
According to the patria potestas provision of the Twelve Tables, a Roman father
to sacrifice himself, his family and his friends for the state
The greatest honor a Roman could hope to achieve was
brought his entire army, including elephants, over the Alps.
During the Second Punic War, the Carthaginian general Hannibal:
no industrial revolution took place, and urban underemployment was common
Since the Romans employed slaves for all forms of manual labor
is known as the early empire or Principate, because Octavian rules as first citizen
The Augustan system of government
Caligula
Although many emperors who followed Augustus in the Julio-Claudian dynasty were able individuals, many were not; arguable the worst of these was
that the evolving process of Roman leaders coming from everywhere within the empire and people would settle far from their place of birth
One example of how Rome transformed the world into the Roman world would be
construction of a system of aqueducts to allow a steady supply of potable water to the cities
The Romans were able to support cities with large populations due, in no small measure, to the
the law of peoples
Roman law consisted of three branches: civil law, natural law, and