Western Civ Ch 14-17
The economy of 16th century Europe was characterized by:
increasing population, fixed food supplies, and stagnant wages.
The troubles of the late 16th and early 17th centuries:
caught most Europeans completely unaware.
The primary problem caused by the Price Revolution of the late 16th century was:
The increase in the amount of silver flowing from the Americas to Europe in the 16th century is credited with causing or exacerbating:
the Price Revolution, an increase in poverty, the religious wars, and a rise in taxes (all of these).
More than one factor contributed to the Price Revolution of the late 16th century, but among those factors was:
Which groups in European society benefited most from the Price Revolution?
Merchants and large farmers
The 1555 Peace of Augsburg rested on the principle of “cuius regio, eius religio,” which meant:
the ruler of each principality settled all matters of religion.
The German religious wars may be attributed to:
the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, whose goal was to re-establish Catholic unity within his realm.
Which of the following religious orientations did the Peace of Augsburg exclude?
Most French Protestants were:
Aristocratic women were particularly important supporters of:
the Protestant forces in the French Wars of Religion.
The Edict of Nantes:
recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France.
Which of the following religious orientations did the Peace of Augsburg exclude?
During the first half of the 16th century, northern Europe’s leading commercial and financial center was:
William of Orange (“William the Silent”) fought during the religious wars to free the Netherlands from:
catholic rule under the Spanish.
During the revolt of the Netherlands, the Protestant forces of William the Silent were based in the northern part of the country, where the majority of the population was:
During the revolt of the Netherlands, the Duke of Alva:
used Spanish troops to rule the Netherlands under martial law.
The English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 was a decisive moment in Western history because:
had Spain conquered England, Catholics would have made major inroads against the Protestants.
The Thirty Years’ War began when:
a Catholic prince became the ruler of a Protestant territory.
The Thirty Years’ War created the greatest devastation in:
From an international perspective, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) marked:
the emergence of France as the dominant power in Europe, eclipsing Spain.
Although Spain was the most powerful country in Europe during the 16th century, it sowed the seeds of its eventual decline by:
establishing colonies in the Americas.
By 1660, Europe had undergone:
a decisive altering of the balance of power.
To promote the economic development of France, Henry IV did all of the following EXCEPT:
open up new silver mines within France.
The primary goal of Cardinal Richelieu’s government was:
to increase and centralize royal power over France.
The Fronde was:
An aristocratic rebellion against the government of Cardinal Mazarin.
The Stuart dynasty of English kings began with:
King James I.
King James I antagonized his parliaments by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
involving England in foreign wars without their consent.
The English Civil War was caused by:
all of these.
James I mediated the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants by:
encouraging Calvinist doctrine generally without modifying the English prayer book.
Charles I demonstrated his lack of political diplomacy when he:
launched a costly new war against Spain.
What forced Charles I to summon a new parliament, after he had ruled without one for 11 years?
An invasion force from Scotland.
The immediate provocation for the outbreak of civil war between king Charles and his parliament was:
Charles’ attempt to arrest five parliamentary leaders on the floor of the House of Commons.
Oliver Cromwell rose to power in England as:
the leader of the Parliamentary Army.
In 1600, most English men and women welcomed the restoration of the monarchy. Why?
Because years of unpopular Calvinist prohibitions on public amusements had discredited Cromwell’s Puritan regime.
As a rule, Charles II:
accepted all parliamentary legislation passed before the English Civil War.
In 16th and 17th century Europe, most formal trials on charges of witchcraft were carried out:
by state courts.
The main theme of Montaigne’s Essays was:
a pervasive skepticism about all human knowledge.
Jean Bodin’s Six Books of the Commonwealth was the first fully developed statement of:
absolute governmental sovereignty.
A chivalric mentality had remained important for some segments of European society into the early modern period, but it’s anachronistic nature was satirized by:
In his own day, the most popular of the Elizabethan dramatists was:
The Elizabethan author of Doctor Faustus was:
The 16th century writer who portrayedf lower-class people in a very favorable light was:
Many writers of the 16th and 17th centuries were as popular, or even more popular, during their lifetimes as William Shakespeare. Modern scholars consider only one of them, ______, to be his equal in artistic vision.
The architect of the Baroque noted for his Hellenistic-inspired style was:
Naturalism has a place within Baroque art due to the work of:
Peter Breugel the Elder.
Baroque painting is considered by many to have found its master in Diego Velazquez with such paintings as:
The Maids of Honor.
What Dutch painter was famous for his black and white etchings of New Testament scenes?
Rembrandt van Rijn
Peter Paul Rubens stressed the ________ of the Baroque style.
Europe, between the mid 16th and mid 17th centuries, witnessed:
Religious war, political rebellions, economic crises, diminishing confidence in traditional authority (all of these).
Sixteenth-century Europeans believed that the proper role of the state was to enforce true religion on its subjects and that religious pluralism would destroy any state that tried it.
The presence of Jesuits and Calvinists meant religious wars became more brutal.
William of Orange was knows as “William the Silent” because he often deferred public speaking to his wife, Mary.
Sir Francis Drake was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe in search of treasure.
Unlike Spain, which was able to feed itself, France had to import most of its food.
Henry IV declared there should be a chicken in every French family’s pot each Sunday as part of his new campaign of prosperity.
The Petition of Right declared that all taxes not voted upon by Parliament to be the property of the Church to stop the revenues from benefiting the king.
During the English Civil War, the parliamentary forces consisted mainly of small landholders and artisans, while the nobility supported the king.
Roughly half of all of those accused of witchcraft were men.
According to Bodin, ensuring the livelihood of its people was the greatest duty of a state.
Shakespeare’s The Tempest is representative of his third period of writing in which he displays a spirit of reconciliation and peace.
Mannerism refers to a 16th century style of art which was highly dramatic and emotionally compelling.
Baroque refers to a style of art that contains the dramatic and the irregular but avoided the bizarre nature of late Mannerism.
Brueghel, Rubens, and Rembrandt were very similar painters who explored the topics of man’s wretchedness and greatness to the fullest.
Rembrandt gained fame initially as a painter of biblical scenes.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, absolutism was a political theory that:
allowed rulers to govern by divine right and according to their own will.
According to Chapter 15, which European government developed into an autocracy in the early modern period?
Absolutist rulers such as Louis XIV sought control over the state because:
the 16th and early 17th centuries were times of great disorder in Europe.
The most important opponents of royal absolutism were:
Louis XIV used the Palace of Versailles to:
demonstrate the grandeur of his rule and to control the French nobility.
According to the justification given for absolutism, the fundamental basis for order and justice in the world is:
The government of France under Louis XIV would be best described as:
highly centralized, with everyone being appointed by and reporting to the king.
In general, the religious policites of Louis XIV aimed to:
imposed religious unity upon all French people.
The Royal Finance Minister who increased revenues in France during the reign of Louis XIV was:
The wars of Louis XIV:
were an enormous drain on the Treasury of France.
According to the French finance minister, Colbert, one underlying principle of mercantilism is:
The governmental system used by the United Provinces in the Netherlands throughout the 17th century was:
In England, Charles II triggered a crisis not unlike that produced by his father’s rule when he:
began modeling his kingship on the absolutism of Louis XIV.
Alhough most European countries have had representative assemblies, the longest surviving assembly is in:
James II of England angered his critics and set off a national crisis when he:
and his second wife, Mary of Modena, had a son, a Catholic heir to the throne.
The English call the 1688-89 transfer of power to William and Mary the “Glorious Revolution” because:
it established England, without bloodshed, as a mixed monarchy governed by “the King in Parliament.”
In his Two Treatises of Government, John Locke argued that:
legitimate government authority is conditional and contractual.
The War of the Spanish Succession was fought when the Spanish king, ______, died without an heir.
The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) altered the balance of power in Europe by:
giving Great Britain trading rights and desirable French territory in the New World.
The balance of power in central and eastern Europe was reshaped at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries because of the loss of power of:
the Ottoman Empire.
Under Maria Theresa and her son, Habsburg, absolutism:
became “enlightened,” but was still limited by weaknesses within the empire.
As an “enlightened” absolutist monarchy, the Habsburgs of Austria:
All of these: Created a system of public elementary education, relaxed censorship, created a standing professional army, and increased their control of the church.
Frederick William I made Prussia strong by:
exerting prudent financial leadership and building a large army.
Frederick the Great, of Prussia, made Prussia a major European power by:
invading Silesia and Poland, and carefully consolidating his gains.
In general, the policies of Peter the Great of Russia included:
the introduction of western ideas and customs.
The great peasant uprising of the 17th century was lead by:
The goal of Peter the Great’s foreign policy was to:
secure year-round ports for Russia.
The balance of power in eastern Europe was realigned in 1721 with the Peace of:
Catherine the Great’s interest in codifying and liberalizing Russian law was essentially abandoned when:
peasants revoled in 1773-75 and threatened Moscow.
Poland lost 30% of its territory and 50% of its population as a result of an agreement brokered bewteen Prussia, Austria, and Russia by:
Frederick the Great.
In the 18th century, Europe’s traditional food supply was augmented by which new products from the Americas?
Maize and potatoes
By the late 18th century, the population of Naples, Italy, had reached nearly:
An important technical innovation in early modern Holland was a machine called the _____, by which the hulls of ships could be raised in the water for repair.
The consumerism of the 18th century grew to allow more people to buy goods that had been luxuries only a short time before; however, one result of this situation was a rise in the cost of such goods caused by:
the law of supply and demand.
The economic nature of the Spanish colonies in the 16th and 17th centuries reflected:
the principles of mercantilist theory.
In the French colonial system, the greatest profits came from:
Social relations in the Spanish colonies of Central and South America were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
the uprooting and resettlement of large numbers of native people.
European wealth and prosperity in the 17th and 18th centuries may be attributed at least in part to:
their Asian, African, and American colonies.
When England began to break into international colonial trade, its efforts were marked by:
quite a bit of piracy, as English sailors seized Spanish cargo Ships for the plunder.
The cultivation of New World sugar and tobacco depended on:
Although the Puritans left England to escape the government’s attempt to impose religious conformity:
they showed little interest in converting Native merican peoples to Christianity.
European governments at first jointed the church in condemning the use of tobacco, but when it became:
wildly profitable, they encouraged its consumption.
The most valuable Dutch colonies during the 17th century were in:
Approximately how many Africans were transported across the Atlantic Ocean during the 18th century to be sold as slaves?
On a typical merchant run along the “triangle trade” route, a British ship would sail from New England with rum, trade the rum for slaves in Africa, and then:
trade the slaves for molasses in Jamaica.
Of all the slaves brought to the western hemisphere from Africa, approximately _____ percent came to North America.
The Portugese and the Spanish had begun modern European colonization, but by the mid 18th century the European leaders were the:
French and the English.
One of the important causes of the American Revolution was Britain’s success in:
The Seven Years’ war.
In 1780, Britain declared war on _____ for continuing to trade with the colonies during the American Revolution.
The Dutch Republic
In the context of early modern European history, the American War of Independence was:
the final military conflict in a century-long struggle between Great Britain and France.
In the late 17th century, European wars almost always had a colonial aspect.
The absolute monarchs ruled only with the consent of their nobles and people.
“Whigs” was a nickname for the supporters of King Charles II.
Habeas corpus is a guarantee that no one can be imprisoned unless charged with a crime.
The League of Augsburg united Holland, England, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, the Rhine Palatinate, and the Austrian Habsburgs against Louis XIV.
After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Austria’s biggest threat was from Germany.
The “Junkers” were a group of enserfed peasants in Prussia.
The Smirnoff dynasty ruled Russia after the death of Ivan the Terrible.
Catherine the Great of Russia was actually a German who came to the throne upon the death of her husband, Peter III.
The power within Europe was gradually shifting toward the east during the 18th century with the rise of Prussia and Russia.
In the 18th century, infectious disease killed half of all people before they reached the age of 20.
Techniques for printing colored designs on calico cloth were imported from the New World but made illegal in some areas to protect native industry.
Intermarriage between natives and Africans was quite common in the New World, as were the native/English marriages, though African/English marriages were banned.
The mortality rate on a slave ship was about 10%, the same as for a normal sea voyage.
War is the normal state of Europe at any point in its history, and the 18th century was no exception.
All of these: A body of knowledge, a community of practitioners, a system of inquiry, institutions to support the practitioners.
Although logic and geometry had played a role in the medieval worldview, _____ would assume a much more central role in the “New Science.”
The _____ argued that nature was the way in which God revealed himself to humanity.
The dispersal of ancient texts by the humanists of the late Renaissance that served to encourage study and debate was facilitated by:
the widespread use of the printing press.
Throughout the Middle Ages, the most important classical authorities on natural philosophy were _____ and _____.
Copernicus’ work on the problem of the Ptolemaic system was commissioned by:
the Roman Catholic Church.
Europeans believed, generally, in the geocentric theory of the universe, even though this model was contradicted by empirical evidence discovered over 300 years earlier by:
Nicholas Copernicus hesitated to publish his De Revolutionibus because:
the implications of his theory of heliocentricity greatly troubled him.
Copernicus calculated the earth to be _____ miles from the sun.
_____ made the first challenge to the Ptolemaic conception of the universe.
Tycho Brahe differed from Copernicus in that:
he did not believe the earth orbited the sun.
Which of the following best describes Johannes Kepler’s intellectual foundations?
Mysticism, astrology, and mathematics
Kepler believed _____ was God’s language.
Johannes Kepler built on the work of his mentor, Tycho Brahe, to:
correct two of Copernicus’s assumptions concerning planetary motion.
____ was the “new scientist” whose work laid the foundation for Sir Isaac Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.
The term heliocentric means:
Many Roman Catholic churchmen viewed the “New Science,” especially as typified by Copernican theory:
as a direct threat to church doctrine.
In 1616, Galileo Galilei was urged by his supporters to stop promulgating Copernican ideas, when the Catholic Church:
placed Copernicus’ work on the Index of Forbidden Books.
Galileo hoped for support from his friend Maffeo Barberini who became:
Galileo Galilei set forth his conviction about religion and science in a 1615 letter to:
Grand Duchess Christina.
Galileo Galilei was brought to trial by the Inquisition because he:
promoted Copernican ideas and had insulted his old patron, Cardinal Barberini, who was now Pope Urban VIII.
The trial of Galileo by the Inquisition resulted in:
all of these: His imprisonment, putting him off his work, a “new philosophy” based on Galileo’s work in NW Europe, his work being placed on the Index.
One result of Galileo’s trial was that:
the New Science flourished in NW Europe.
The view that progress may be made only through cooperative effort, without regard to established dogma or national boundaries, was made by Francis Bacon in his book:
A method of reasoning that goes from the specific to the general was developed by:
The bulk of philosophy of Rene Descartes may be summed up by which statement?
“I think, therefore I am.”
The primary target of Descartes’ philosophical method was:
Rene Descartes believed he had proven the existence of God through his use of systematic doubt in his book:
The Discourse on Method.
All of the following contributed greatly to the development of 16th century astronomy EXCEPT:
The deductive method of inquiry was formulated by:
All of these.
Science reinforced a belief in God through:
an application of geometry and ethics to prove the single substance of the universe was both God and nature.
Which English natural philosopher discovered the cellular structure of plants?
One of the founders of modern chemistry was the Englishman:
Although Rene Descartes believed he had proven the existence of God, _____ believed he had proven that the universe was a single substance that was both God and nature.
In European states, the New Science:
was encouraged in England and other countries through the establishment of royal societies.
The new scientific societies:
All of these.
The second national scholarly academy to be established by the reigning monarch was in:
The first woman to receive a doctorate degree in philosophy in Italy was:
Elena Cornaro Piscopia.
Although science during this period was primarily the domain of men, many women also made their mark, such as the astronomer Maria Winkelmann and the entomologist:
Maria Sibylla Merian.
One of the leading German astronomers of the 17th century was:
Although it was the norm with European academic societies to not admit women, one exception to this was:
While many men and women wrote during the 17th century concerning the ability of women to fully participate in the scientific realm, none wrote quite so passionately as _____, who wrote of the “tyrannical government of men over women.”
As a leader of the “scientific revolution,” Isaac Newton was:
a recluse who spent his time in Cambridge.
Isaac Newton’s best-known work today was his research conducted on:
Galileo had made improvements on the lens developed by the Dutch for use in telescopes, but some of the earliest work on the nature of how humans see was done by:
Sir Isaac Newton published Principia Mathematica to answer critiques of his theories coming primarily from:
One effect of the work of Isaac Newton was to:
demonstrate the ability of mathematics to explain the workings of the universe.
From the 17th century on, there existed a fundamental shift in the view of the world by the Western world. To be considered “modern,” one now approached the world through:
Which of the following best describes Sir Isaac Newton’s attitude toward Christianity?
Science and faith are compatible and mutually supporting.
The scientific revolution stood apart from other social, religious and cultural transformations.
The “prime mover” was the force that put into place the motions of the celestial bodies and was interpreted as being the Christian God.
The “Ptolemaic system” was the first system to question whether planets moved in a circular path around a stationary earth.
Tycho Brahe’s greatest contribution to astronomy was his building of the first observatory on a small island granted to him by the Danish king.
Galileo argued that one could not be both a sincere Copernican and a Catholic.
“Simplicio” (Simpleton) was a character in Galileo’s “Dialogue” who represented the new science.
Galileo’s work apparently had no support from within the Catholic church.
Galileo’s works were widely translated and widely read and raised awareness of changes in natural philosophy across Europe.
Galileo’s work was smuggled out of Italy and published in England.
Descartes introduced a new method for understanding called deductive reasoning, which relied on proceeding logically from one certainty to another.
Baruch Spinoza applied geometry to ethics and deduced that the universe was made of a single substance that was both God and nature in one.
While the French scholastic societies reserved science as “a gentlemanly pursuit,” English societies freely admitted women.
For Newton, science, if properly conducted, could always uncover the causes of phenomena.
Newton realized his work was groundbreaking, but he proved to be an egotistical recluse who did not credit his predecessors’ work in laying a foundation for his own, bringing upon himself the censure of his peers.
Science was slow to work its way into people’s understanding because it undermined religion, which was the foundation block of western society.
Voltaire’s attitude toward injustice, fanaticism, and intolerance was solidified due to a murder case tried in 1762; the defendant in the case was:
A primary concern of the Enlightenment was:
All of these: The danger of arbitrary and unchecked authority, the value of religious toleration, the overriding importance of law, the importance of reason in all affairs.
The genesis of the Enlightenment may be found in the:
scientific revolution of the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Enlightenment was not confined to any single area of human endeavor, but was evident in the science, music, and politics of the age. Some scientific thinkers might be politically conservative, while some political thinkers were truly radical in their views. Among this radical group was:
A cornerstone of Enlightenment thinking was skepticism, as developed by the Scottish philospher:
John Locke is best known today as a political philosopher, but in the 18th century he was better known for his studies of:
For the philosophers, an important implication of John Locke’s tabula rasa was:
the environment determines all social progress.
The motto of the Enlightenment “Dare to know!” was coined by:
The end that Enlightenment thinkers sought was summarized by Alexander Pope in his “Essay on Man” when he wrote, “The science of human nature may be, like all other sciences, reduced to:
a few clear points.”
A philosophe may be defined as an individual who was a [an]:
The philosophes of the Enlightenment, as exemplified by Voltaire, particularly admired England because of:
its constitutional monarchy and policy of religious toleration.
Although much admired in many segments of the population, Voltaire’s forthrightness kept him in trouble and even got him a short stay in prison in the:
The Enlightenment battle cry of “ecrasez l’infame” best represents the ideas of:
Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire).
In “the Spirit of the Laws,” Baron de Montesquieu argued:
in favor of the separation and balancing of the powers of government.
One of the most remarkable publications of pre-revolutionary France was Denis Diderot’s:
The life and career of Cesare Beccaria was dedicated to the idea that:
the only legitimate rationale for punishment was to maintain the social order.
Deism, the “religion” of the Enlightenment, expressed the belief that:
God created the universe, but no longer took any active interest in it.
Most Enlightenment thinkers who might be labeled as deists were theists; of the few who were atheists, the most famous was:
Paul Henri d’Holbach.
In general, the philosophes considered Judaism and Islam:
superstitious and backward religions.
In general, the philosophes held relatively disparaging views of Judaism, _____, a German philosopher, was a notable exception.
____ was a Jewish philosopher who argued that religion should be voluntary, that secular states should promote tolerance, and that progress for everyone would come through humanitarianism.
Unlike the French physiocrats who believed that the wealth of a nation came from the land and agricultural production, Adam Smith believed that the wealth of a nation came from its:
The “invisible hand” of Adam Smith’s theory could best guide economic activity because:
all humans are rational and are the best judges of their own interests.
According to the Abbe Guillaume Thomas Francois Raynal, the one event that had a profound impact on Europeans was:
the discovery of the New World.
Which of the following best expresses the philosophes’ attitude toward slavery?
Slavery corrupted it’s victims, and so slaves were not ready for freedom.
One philosophe organization, founded by Warville de Brissot, which called for the abolition of slavery was:
the Society of Friends of Blacks.
Although the philosophes condemned slavery, they did not argue for its immediate abolition and used many different means of avoiding the issue. One of their number, _____, exposed the hypocrisy of this approach by wondering how the Europeans would view slavery if they themselves were being enslaved.
The South Pacific region was explored extensively by both the French and the English. The French explorer, Louis-Anne de Bougainville, searched the South Pacific in search of a new route to China. He was soon followed by the English explorer:
The South Pacific island of Tahiti was first discovered for the Europeans by:
Louis-Anna de Bougainville.
Closely following voyages of discovery, many Enlightenment thinkers such as Denis Diderot believed that the Tahitians best represented humanity:
in its natural state.
Although much exploration was carried out by the French and the English, people from many other nations participated in the exploration of the New World. One of these, _____, was hailed by Charles Darwin as “the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived.”
Alexander von Humboldt
Although not well understood when first published in the 18th century, Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s book, _____, would become very influential during the French Revolution later in the same century.
The Social Contract
According to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, freedom meant:
equal citizens obeying the laws they had made themselves.
In his novel Emile, Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that:
children are, by nature, good and equal in their capacity to learn.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s somewhat conflicting views of female nature illustrate:
the shifting meaning of “nature” by the middle of the 18th century.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s fellow philosophes deemed which of his books as “hysterical and obscene”?
In her Vindication of the Rights of Women, Mary Wollstonecraft argued that:
all men and women share a common humanity.
Mary Wollstonecraft believed that equality laid the basis for virtue and thus argued that society ought to seek “the perfection of our nature and capability of:
With the rise in literacy and the book business in the 18th century, censorship:
was uneven in its implementation.
The 18th century Enlightenment produced an elite or high culture that was typified by:
its cosmopolitan nature.
The general culture that developed from the 18th century Enlightenment was:
The philosophes of the 18th century used people’s houses in which to meet and converse on a more informal basis than that provided by the royal academies. These informal meetings were known as:
The 18th century saw the birth of a new literary genre, the novel, and the growing acceptance of women as authors. The most famous woman from this period, as recognized today, was the English novelist:
Although the majority of people possessed few books, at most a Bible and one or two other religious works, it appears now that literacy rates were much higher than had previously been believed, perhaps as high as _____ percent for men and _____ percent for women in European urban centers.
85 and 60
Even with the literacy rate that Europe enjoyed, formal schooling remained a goal yet to be attained. For example, by the end of the 18th century in Russia, only _____ out of a population of 40 million had attended any kind of school.
The “classical” style of music that swept Europe in the late 18th century:
was intended to sound orderly, clear and balanced.
Johanne Sebastian Bach was one of the greatest composers of the:
Although George Frederic Handel began his career in London composing Italian-style operas, he is best remembered today for his oratorios, the most famous of which is:
The one 18th century European city with a commercial market for culture, including music, was:
Opera, a very popular musical form during the 18th century was developed in the 17th century by:
Of all the thinkers from the scientific revolution, John Locke had the widest ranging impact on Enlightenment scholars.
Tabula rasa means “human mind.”
Voltaire’s reputation stemmed not from his philosophy, but from his effectiveness as an advocate.
Unlike the writers of the scientific revolution, the Enlightenment writers wrote for large audiences.
The Dictionnaire was the greatest achievement of the philosophes, bringing an understanding of language and its history to the common people.
The Enlightenment was not only a western European trend in thinking, it was also found in central and southern Europe.
Due to the high regard the philosophes such as Voltaire had for England, English became the language of the Enlightenment.
According to Lessing, religion is authentic or true only insofar as it makes the believer virtuous.
Laissez-Faire economics came from the writings of the Scottish economist Adam Smith who argued against state monopolies and for the encouragement of individual interests in the economy.
Captain Cook was killed by cannibals in New Zealand, adding to the ferocity of the western image of the Maori.
Rousseau argued that men and women should receive the same education to enable them to be and create good citizens.
The first daily newspaper was printed in London.
The fastest growing group of readers in the 18th century was the female middle class.
Literacy rates were highest in the country where industry was slower and communities were closer to enable education and the borrowing of books.
Mozart was buried in a pauper’s grave.