Western Civilization Mid Term

The Law Code of Hammurabi:
had most of its laws aimed at free commoners
Cave paintings, such as those found in Lascaux, France, are evidence of:
development of language as well as religious and artistic ideas.
Jericho, one of the world’s oldest villages, began an impressive building program of structures to protect their grain surplus around:
6800 B.C.E
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The earliest cities in Mesopotamia were founded by the:
Ubaid peoples
One of the new approaches to the study of how humans lived before the development of cities and writing is:
evolutionary biology.
To the peoples of the ancient world, the characteristic manifestations of civilization—government, literature, science, and art—were necessarily products of:
city life
One of the notable characteristics of civilization was the development of:
occupational specialization.
One of the contributors to the Neolithic revolution was:
climate change
The switch from subsistence by food gathering to food production:
was a momentous revolution that made stable settlements possible
An individual who successfully led the city-state’s army in battles was:
able to acquire prestige and power as a lugal
One of the significant technological achievements of the Sumerians was:
the invention of the potter’s wheel.
Sargon of Akkad (c. 2350 B.C.E.) is significant because he:
subdued Sumer and exerted influence from Ethiopia to the Indus Valley.
Although early writing was produced using pointed sticks, Sumerian scribes c. 3100 B.C.E. advanced writing with durable reeds that:
produced wedgelike script called cuneiform
The Egyptians made notable advances in:
measuring time
Ur-Nammu built the great ziggurat at:
Ur.
Historians typically divide ancient Egyptian history into _________ to facilitate the discussion of Egyptian politics and culture.
kingdoms and periods
The Egyptian system of hieroglyphics was:
deciphered by Champollion using the Rosetta Stone
The civilization that emerged in ancient Egypt arose:
at the same time as that of ancient Sumer.
The Egyptians developed elaborate tombs and burial techniques:
to provide the dead with all they would need in the afterlife
Which comparison between Egypt and Mesopotamian civilizations is false?
Both enjoyed significant political and cultural interactions.
Hammurabi might have been the first ruler in history to:
have most of his laws aimed at free commoners.
The Akkadian rulers of Sargon and Naram-Sin:
ruled from cities and kept their empires through conquest and commerce.
The Egyptian book, _________, is an example of “wisdom literature” offering advice to those in public life.
The Instruction of Ptah-Hotep
The Epic of Gilgamesh, the dramatic confrontation between Gilgamesh and Enkidu and its aftermath, illustrates:
that the forces of nature cannot be overcome by civilization and death is inevitable.
By becoming a “lawgiver,” Hammurabi:
set a new standard of kingship.
The Eighteenth Dynasty in Egypt produced many strong pharaohs, among them:
Hatshepsut
The Late Bronze Age:
was an age of superpowers.
In Phoenicia’s overseas colonies:
power was wielded by a small number of elite families.
he accomplishments of King Darius of Persia included:
building roads for transport and postal service
building roads for transport and postal service
of a Last Day or a Day of Judgment.
Two of the foremost Hebrew prophets who emphasized the ethical demands God makes on humans were:
Amos and Hosea.
The system of writing developed by the citizens of Ugarit:
used an alphabet of about thirty symbols for the consonants
By 1500 B.C.E.:
huge Mycenaean citadels were scattered across some of Greece.
A mysterious wave of invasions entered the Mediterranean world and destroyed almost all of the preexisting civilizations:
in the second millennium B.C.E.
The culture of the Hittites was:
strongly militaristic, prone to attacks on other peoples
The Minoans:
wrote tablets in Linear A to record their economic transactions.
“Indo-European,” as used in historical or anthropological texts, refers to:
linguistic and cultural patterns found widely distributed from Ireland to India.
The New Kingdom, particularly the Eighteenth Dynasty, was marked by:
the rise of a wealthy aristocracy.
In the 1100s B.C.E. a wave of destruction swept across the Near East and the Mediterranean world as a result of the invasions of the:
Sea Peoples.
The Babylonian Captivity of the Hebrews affected Judaism by
enabling the Hebrews to sustain an identity outside of a Hebrew kingdom.
The Phoenicians’s greatest contribution to civilization was:
their alphabet
Akhenaten represents one of the earliest moves, in Western history, toward
monotheism in religious practices.
By the fourteenth century B.C.E., international relations were marked by:
diplomatic standards, polite forms of address, gifts, and alliances.
The Hebrew cult of Yahweh:
was significantly advanced by the Levites
The Mitannians introduced lighter chariots to carry archers, but:
their opponents soon copied them and used protective armor.
The division of property and wealth in New Kingdom Egypt
favored the pharaoh, the officer class, and the temples of the gods.
Philistine power was based in:
the Pentapolis
In the Book of Judges, the Hebrew people:
begin to settle and organize themselves into twelve tribes
The division of the ancient kingdom of Israel was:
provoked by Solomon’s oppressive regime
Ionians transmitted the Lydian invention of _________ to the Greek world.
coinage
By the sixth century B.C.E., Greeks founded numerous colonies around the Mediterranean basin, the most significant of which were located where?
Anatolia and Italy
A Greek aristocrat who seized power and ruled outside the traditional constitutional framework was called:
a tyrant
Spartiates rejected innovation and change and were:
forbidden to engage in trade or commerce.
Because of their successful colonial and trading activities, the Miletus:
became extraordinarily wealthy.
Socrates urged his followers to
understand the principles of proper conduct and one’s actions.
Greeks made contact with the _____ in the ninth century B.C.E.
Phoenicians.
One major result of the Persian wars was:
the vindication of hoplites in battle and a boost to Athenian and Greek confidence
The Greeks referred to some people with whom they came into contact as barbarians because they:
did not speak Greek
Hoplites were organized into formations called a:
phalanx
Hubris is:
excessive pride, which was punished by the gods.
The social center and organizational hub of the Greek polis was:
the agora
A result of the defeat of the Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse was:
the Athenian assembly replaced its democracy with oligarchy.
In the symposium, Archaic Age Greek aristocrats:
enjoyed wine and listened to poetry.
The most militarized of all the poleis in Greece was
Sparta
Milesian philosophers, known as the pre-Socratics:
looked to physical explanations of the workings of the universe.
Greek sculpture evolved from the rather stiff likenesses resembling Egyptian statuary to a style labeled as
naturalism
The origins of Greek democracy can be identified, in part, in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat
Solon
After Hoplites were introduced in Greece:
aristocrats lost their monopoly on military prowess.
Cleisthenes is important in the history of Athenian government because he:
championed the cause of the demos and took steps to limit the power of aristocrats.
The Sophist claim that ?0ÒMan is the measure of all things?1Ó means:
goodness, truth, and justice are not absolutes, but vary according to the needs and interests of human beings
The decisive Greek military victory over the Persians at Salamis was won by:
the Athenian fleet
Homer’s poetry describes a world in which
warrior aristocrats competed for status and power and reinforced social ties through hospitality and gift-giving.
What made Greek battle formations and strategy formidable?
the training and skill of the hoplites to stay together.
Following Sparta’s victory in the Peloponnesian War:
Sparta alienated the other Greek cities by trying to dominate them
Macedonian military reforms under Philip II most closely resemble earlier reforms undertaken by:
Thebes
Macedonian rule in Egypt was characterized by:
a revival of ancient traditions associated with the pharaohs
Central to the Skeptic worldview is the idea that:
one must suspend judgment concerning everything
Aristarchus of Samos was unusual among Hellenistic astronomers because:
he believed that the earth revolves around the sun.
A major influence on Epicurus and his school of Epicureanism was:
Democritus
Whereas Plato conceived of politics as a means toward living the good life, Aristotle regarded politics as:
an end in itself.
The chief characteristics of Hellenistic architecture were:
grandeur and ornamentation
In invading Persia, Alexander began to follow the example of Cyrus the Great and:
offered amnesty to cities that surrendered and no mercy to those that did not
Greek rational thought began to separate in the Hellenistic world
and scientific inquiry began to be its own field of study.
With the expansion of population in Hellenistic world:
Alexander’s successors established some 200 cities
With the expansion of population in the Hellenistic world and the creation of larger cities:
the average Greek male was less connected to his community and had little or no stake in society.
Herophilus of Chalcedon was an innovative _________ in the ancient Hellenistic world.
anatomist
After the Corinthian War (395-387 B.C.E.), Sparta:
was defeated by Thebes, under the leadership of Epaminondas
The beginning of the end of Alexander’s conquests was his inability to fully subdue
Afghanistan
Alexander sought to fuse his Greco-Macedonian Empire with Persia by
arranging for hundreds of his officers to marry Persian noblewomen.
Alexander decided to make Egypt the capital of his empire:
after he was proclaimed the ?0Òson of Ammon?1Ó by the sun god’s oracle.
To highlight their authority and status in the former Persian Empire, Seleucid rulers
used terms in proclamations reminiscent of earlier Mesopotamian rulers.
During the economic decline of Greece in the fourth century B.C.E.:
former soldiers often worked as mercenaries who disrupted the household-based culture of the Greek poleis.
The most important cultural center in the Hellenistic world was:
Alexandria.
Philip of Macedonia built his power base north of Greece partially by:
multiple alliance marriages
After a period of instability, __________was finally able to establish rule over the homeland of Alexander’s Empire—Macedonia and Greece
Antigonus
The _________ believed that the cosmos is an ordered whole in which all contradictions are resolved for ultimate good
Stoics
The Aetolian and Achaean Leagues differed from previous Greek attempts at political organization between poleis because:
they represented a real political unification, with some centralization of government functions.
Why did autocratic rulers in the Hellenistic world encourage manufacturing industries?
Manufacturing increased international trade revenues and therefore taxation and tariffs.
The myth of the rape of Lucretia appealed to Roman patriotism by emphasizing:
the corruption of Etruscan morals and government
Roman law consisted of three branches: civil law, natural law, and:
the law of nations
One of the things the Romans borrowed from the Greek settlers in southern Italy was:
the derived Roman alphabet.
Central to Roman identity was a conservatism expressed in an unwritten code of
mos maiorum
During the early Roman Republic, Rome:
expanded slowly and extended the Latin right to many of the cities it conquered.
In the aftermath of the assassination of Julius Caesar, the second triumvirate took out its revenge on everyone opposed to them; one of the more prominent victims of the second triumvirate was:
Cicero
The geographic site of Rome has many advantages, including
hills that increase the defensibility of the city.
The Latin Right of the early Romans guaranteed that:
contracts, marriages, and citizenship were valid across Latium
According to the patria potestas provision of the Twelve Tables, a Roman father
had absolute power over his family, up to and including the power of life and death
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 B.C.E., represent:
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey.
Cultural and intellectual developments in Rome reached their pinnacle during:
the Principate.
Traditional Roman religion included ancestor worship and:
oligarchs who played dual roles as priests and politicians
One example of how Rome transformed the world into the Roman world would be:
that Roman leaders who originated from everywhere within the empire would settle far from their place of birth.
The division between Roman patricians and plebeians was:
between the wealthiest (2 percent) and the rest (98 percent) of the people.
The equestrian order (Roman knights) was established when
businessmen who did not become senators wanted privileges.
Those who ruled Rome from 96 to 180 C.E. were called the “Five Good Emperors” because:
they were capable administrators who governed successfully
The Romans were the first people to use ___ on a massive scale in their buildings.
concrete
The Romans were able to support cities with large populations due, in no small measure, to the:
construction of a system of aqueducts to allow a steady supply of potable water to the cities.
Tiberius Gracchus sought to protect small farmers and protect the pool of citizens from which the army could be drawn by reviving old laws from the republican days that limited the amount of land a person could hold; for this he was:
murdered
Prior to Julius Caesar’s appointment as “Dictator for Life,” only one other Roman had been appointed to that position without the traditional six-month term, and he was:
Sulla
Prior to the establishment of Rome as the dominant state in Italy:
Etruscans, skilled metalworkers and artists, lived there
Once the Romans had effectively gained control of Italy (265 B.C.E.):
they started a series of wars for control of the western Mediterranean
After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a third Punic War:
was provoked by war hawks who thought Carthage must be destroyed.
Cicero, one of the most famous Stoics of the later republic, believed in all the tenets of Stoicism except:
withdrawal from public life.
The Augustan system of government
is known as the early empire or Principate, because Octavian ruled as first citizen.
When it came to pagan literature:
Jerome argued that it could and should be studied if it were first adapted to the Christian message.
When the emperor died in 192 with no heir apparent, civil war once again engulfed the Roman Empire with _________ eventually claiming the throne.
Septimius Severus
Augustine’s Confessions is:
a series of autobiographical essays directed toward God
Romans regarded the Germans as barbarians because:
German society was illiterate, and Germans did not live in cities.
Rome was threatened in the mid-fifth century by the Huns under their leader:
Attila
Jesus is the central figure in Christianity, but Paul was important:
as founder of the universal church, giving it theology and organization.
During the third century, Rome underwent a prolonged period that came very close to destroying the empire. This period is known as the time of
the Barracks Emperors, when Rome had twenty-six emperors in about fifty years
The strategic defense of the Roman Empire changed significantly when
the Goths were permitted to cross the Danube River and settle in Roman territory.
Which statement best describes the position of the Pharisees in Palestine during the first century C.E.?
The Pharisees believed in life after death and a system of individual rewards and punishments.
Christianity went from being a persecuted faith in the early fourth century to being the recognized faith of the empire; this last step was the result of the action by the emperor:
Theodosius, who prohibited pagan worship.
Most of what we know about Jesus was written down:
between c. 70 and 100 C.E.
What made Jesus most controversial among the Jews was:
the claim of his followers that he was the Messiah
The leader of the Goths who received support from the Eastern Emperor to drive the Huns from Italy and establish a Gothic kingdom was:
Theoderic
Realizing that the Roman Empire had become too large for a single ruler to control it:
Diocletian divided the empire in half, trusting a junior colleague to rule the western part
Severus disregarded what remained of the Roman Senate and its few remaining powers and ruled through the army while reforming it by:
allowing Roman soldiers to marry, which allowed them to put down roots where they lived.
The monastic way of life in the West was influenced greatly by the establishment of a set of rules written by:
Benedict
Ambrose helped establish the authority of the Church by
forcing Theodosius to seek forgiveness from Ambrose for his sins.
By the end of the third century, the involvement of women in the Church had:
shrunk to the point that they were completely excluded from all positions of power.
One result of the Council of Nicea was to:
declare Arianism a heresy
The economic effects of the migrations of the fifth century on the northwestern provinces
saw long-distance trade and skilled workers displaced from their occupations.
Unlike the common practices of many previous civilizations:
early Christian monks practiced extreme forms of self-abasement.
Historians now refer to the period from 284 to 610 C.E. as Late Antiquity because:
it is a period with its own themes and developments, neither wholly Roman and not yet medieval.
Unlike Cicero, Ambrose argued that the motive and goal of human conduct should be:
reverence for God
Boethius’s interest in logic while remaining thoroughly Christian:
established a link between classical Greek thought and intellectual Christianity.
Plotinus and Neoplatonism, like Christianity, believed in a soul that could be liberated from earthly bondage and prepared for reunification with God by:
asceticism
One difference between Islam and Christianity is that:
Islam has no sacraments or priests.
The armies of Abu-Bakr were able to expand Islam northward out of Arabia largely because of:
the weakness of Byzantine and Persian armies because of their wars against each other
Many of the local populations in Byzantium and Persia:
viewed the Arab armies as deliverers
An important figure who founded several Merovingian monasteries was
Columbanus.
Pope Gregory I:
significantly advanced Benedictine monasticism as the major monastic movement in the West
A pandemic broke out in 541-42 which has come to be known as:
the Justinianic Plague
The people who took advantage of the weakness of Italy due to Justinian’s policies of reconquest were the:
Lombards.
One result of the campaigns of Belisarius in North Africa and Italy was:
the weakening of Constantinople against the Sassanids
The Byzantine economy in the early Middle Ages was
highly regulated, including wage and price controls
The early Byzantine religion was known for its:
intense interest in matters of doctrine and orthodoxy
Why did Justinian try to reconquer the western Roman Empire?
He sought to revive and reconstruct wholly the old empire
Why did the Romans of Italy and North Africa resent Justinian’s efforts to ?0Òliberate?1Ó them?
There was a heavy cost in taxes and lives.
The stability of Byzantine government was the product of:
an efficient bureaucracy
The Carolingian Empire collapsed during the ninth century:
because of the division of the empire among all the legitimate heirs of Louis and the Frankish aristocracy’s dissatisfaction with the fractured central authority.
It is difficult to date the beginning of Byzantine history with precision because:
the Byzantine Empire was the uninterrupted successor of the Roman Empire.
As a result of the Iconoclastic Controversy:
political legitimacy was fundamentally linked to the defense of religious tradition
In the late sixth century C.E., the economy of Arabia:
became much more commercially sophisticated as a result of the wars between Byzantium and Persia changing trade routes
Prior to Muhammad beginning to teach his prophecy and his new faith the Arabs:
had the concept of Allah as one of several gods
Byzantine monasteries were deeply involved in the Iconoclastic Controversy because:
they were major producers of icons, so they supported the use of images in the faith
In 800 Charlemagne
accepted the crown and title of Holy Roman emperor.
Why were so many convents (monastic houses for women) founded during the seventh century C.E.?
Convents met a variety of social and spiritual needs for aristocratic families.
Local lords and chieftains often granted monasteries special privileges:
because monasteries often played a key role in economic development and prosperity in a region.
Underlying the Carolingian Renaissance was the basic conviction that:
classical learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested
As a Christian king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne
took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government.
Charlemagne was able to contain Umayyad power in Europe by
maintaining diplomatic and trade relations with its rival the Abbasid Caliphate.

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