During the first millennium B.C.E.:
Iron slowly replaced bronze as the primary component of tools and weapons.
In 1786, the scholar Sir William Jones suggested that:
Ancient Greek and Sanskrit descended from a common, Indo-European linguistic source.
“Indo-European,” as used in historical or anthropological texts, refers to:
Linguistic and cultural patterns found in India, the Near East, Europe, and perhaps the Far East.
The people who settled in Anatolia around 2000 B.C.E. and built a powerful, militaristic kingdom there over the next four hundred years are known as the:
The culture of the Hittites was:
Strongly militaristic, prone to attacks on other peoples.
Hattusilis and his successors eventually expanded the Hittite Kingdom by:
Sacking the fabled city of Babylon and collecting its riches.
During the Late Bronze Age (1500-1200 B.C.E.) in the ancient Near East, the two great imperial powers were:
New Kingdom Egypt and the Hittite empire.
The Mitannians introduced lighter chariots to carry archers, but:
Their opponents soon copied them and their technological advantage was lost.
During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt avoided invasion and attack by:
Fostering economic and political ties with its neighbors.
When the Hyksos conquered Lower Egypt in the Egypt’s Second Intermediate Period, they:
Adopted the machinery of pharaonic government.
The New Kingdom, particularly the Eighteenth Dynasty, was marked by:
The peak of Egyptian cultural achievement, and political and military power.
Thutmose I was remarkable for:
Ruling over Egypt, Palestine, and the lands from Nubia in the south to the Euphrates River in the north.
Hatshepsut was regularly portrayed as masculine in Egyptian statuary because:
She needed to demonstrate that, like male pharaohs, she ruled in her own right.
The division of property and wealth in New Kingdom Egypt:
Favored the pharaoh, the military aristocracy, and the temples of the gods.
The priests at the greatest Egyptian temple complexes at Thebes:
Received special favor from the Eighteenth Dynasty, which worshiped Amon-Ra.
As part of his religious reform, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and:
Founded a new capital called Akhetaten, located between Thebes and Memphis.
When Akhenaten died and was succeeded by Tutankhaten:
The new pharaoh returned to traditional ways of worship.
Akhenaten represents one of the earliest moves, in Western history, toward:
Monotheistic religious practices.
By the fourteenth century B.C.E., international relations were marked by:
Diplomatic standards, polite forms of address, gifts, and alliances.
The “self-conscious cosmopolitanism” of the Late Bronze Age:
Developed as ancient cultures actively exchanged goods and ideas.
The system of writing developed by the citizens of Ugarit:
Used an alphabet of about thirty symbols for the consonants.
Relations after 1500 B.C.E. are more appropriately referred to as “transnational” because:
The political and economic networks transcended national boundaries and identities.
The Heroic Age of Greece described by Hesiod and other ancient poets was long thought to:
Be legends or fables with little basis in historical reality.
Heinrich Schliemann and Sir Arthur Evans:
Were archeologists who dug up Troy, Mycenae, and Knossos.
Wrote tablets in Linear A to record their economic transactions.
Mycenaean Greece played a central role in Bronze Age networks as evidenced by:
Correspondence between Mycenaean leaders and Egyptian pharaohs and Hittite kings.
Around 1200 B.C.E., an inscription by Pharaoh Ramses III records:
An Egyptian victory over the “Sea Peoples,” invaders from the north.
Many small kingdoms arose in the Levant during the early Iron Age as a result of the:
Collapse of Hittite civilization.
The Phoenicians are also known as the:
The Phoenicians created a trade network that stretched from:
Anatolia to Iberia and beyond.
Members of the group known in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) as the Philistines shared cultural affinities with the:
The Hebrew Bible is an unparalleled historical source that describes the cultural practices and theological development of the Hebrew people. However, most historians believe that:
The Bible’s composite nature means that each biblical book should be analyzed within its particular context.
In the Book of Judges, the Hebrew people:
Begin to settle and organize themselves into twelve tribes.
The twelve Hebrew tribes united under a single king to:
More easily resist Philistine incursions.
The Hebrew people, according to archaeological and linguistic evidence, were essentially:
King David’s rule was significant in establishing:
A unified Israelite people with a new national capital at Jerusalem.
The division of the ancient kingdom of Israel was:
Provoked by Solomon’s oppressive regime.
Influenced by their long struggle to survive, the Assyrians:
Acted very aggressively toward other peoples.
Assurnasirpal II, king of Assyria, has the distinction of:
Possessing a deserved reputation for cruelty and savagery.
The earlier Assyrian empire had been devastated by the _____, but in the ninth century B.C.E., the foundations for a neo-Assyrian empire were laid by Assurnasirpal II.
The Assyrian king:
Also served as chief priest of the Assyrian religion.
The defeat of the Assyrians and the destruction of Nineveh were:
The work of Medes from Iran and the Chaldeans.
Unlike other rulers, Cyrus of Persia (559-529 B.C.E.):
Granted self-rule and religious freedom to conquered peoples.
Before the Persian empire could be formed, the Persian people had first to defeat their rulers, the:
The accomplishments of King Darius of Persia included:
Building roads for transport and postal service.
The followers of Zoroastrianism believed in:
A god of light who constantly battled a god of darkness.
Zarathustra attempted to redefine religion:
As ethical practices common to all people.
One distinct believe that later Western religions took from Zoroastrianism is the idea:
Of a Day of Judgment.
The Hebrew people became unified in their worship of Yahweh due to:
Prophetic insistence on the need for a united Hebrew identity under neo-Assyrian rule.
Due to a period of captivity in Babylon, ancient Hebrews:
Developed a religion that transcended local politics and geography.
T/F: Anatolia grew in wealth and became urbanized in part due to the Assyrians who changed from a nomadic lifestyle to become caravan merchants.
T/F: Savage violence and terror were characteristic of Assyrian warfare and foreign policy from Assyria’s rise as a power in 1900 B.C.E.
(The Assyrians didn’t seek military dominance; instead, the relied on the protection of local rulers, and, in turn, they made these rulers rich.)
T/F: The Hyksos invasion of Lower Egypt allowed the Nubians to establish an independent kingdom.
T/F: Thutmose I was the pharaoh who expelled the Hyksos and restored Egyptian confidence and reunification.
(Ahmose, not Thutmose I, expelled the Hyksos.)
T/F: Trade in the Late Bronze Age fostered war between nations.
(It actually produced alliances and relationships.)
T/F: The term thalassocracy means “sea empire.”
T/F: The Minoans worshiped an early form of the Greek pantheon of gods and goddesses.
T/F: The center of Mycenaean society was the village, which gave a sense of family and responsibility to the people and encouraged loyalty to the king, who was depicted as a father to his people.
(The Mycenaean king was a powerful war leader, not “a father to his people.”)
T/F: The effect of the arrival of the Sea Peoples in the Near East was to force fledgling kingdoms to unite, though conquest or consent, in order to stand up to this new threat.
T/F: The Greek term Phoenician means “purple people.”
T/F: Although the Phoenicians were great colonizers of the Mediterranean, they remained strict separatists, having little cultural interaction with the non-Semitic peoples they encountered.
(The Phoenicians seemed to interact with everyone they encountered.)
T/F: The Phoenicians were descendants of the Peleset, one of the Sea Peoples. They introduced the olive and the grapevine to the Near East and exerted much of their power in the area from large citadels and control over local trade routes and a monopoly over metalsmithing that made it virtually impossible for their enemies to forge their own weapons.
(That would be the Philistines, not the Phoenicians.)
T/F: We know very little about the Philistines because they left no written records.
T/F: By the end of Solomon’s rule, the cult of Yahweh had expelled all worship of foreign deities and acted as a glue to hold the Hebrew Kingdom together after the Davidic dynasty ended.
T/F: The “Babylonian captivity” of the Hebrew people began in the rule of Cyrus the Great.
(Cyrus actually ended the Babylonian captivity; he didn’t start it.)