Western Civilization to 1648 (HIST-1500) Ch. 7
Justinian’s longest lasting reform was the:
Organization and codification of Roman law.
Why did Justinian try to reconquer the Western Roman Empire?
Because he sought to revive and reconstruct wholly the old empire.
Why did Justinian’s reconquest of the Western Roman Empire fail?
The costs associated with conquering and defending the vast western empire were too great given Justinian’s military commitments elsewhere.
The pandemic known as Justinian’s plague spread rapidly through the eastern and western part of the Roman Empire because it:
Travelled along well-established trade routes both within and outside the empire.
It is difficult to date the beginning of Byzantine history with precision because:
The Byzantine empire considered itself the uninterrupted successor of the Roman Empire.
Between 610 and 1071, the major security threats to the Byzantine empire came from:
Persia, then the Islamic caliphate.
The stability of Byzantine government was the product of:
An efficient bureaucracy.
The Byzantine economy in the early Middle Ages was:
Highly regulated, including wage and price controls.
The early Byzantine religion was known for its:
Intense interest in matters of doctrine and orthodoxy.
The Iconoclastic Controversy of the eighth century C.E. was about:
The use or prohibition of images in church, where people might worship the objects.
Leo III’s support of iconoclasm may have been driven by a desire to:
Strengthen the emperor’s control over the church at the expense of monastic control.
Although the Iconoclastic Controversy was eventually resolved, its lasting effects included the:
Destruction of nearly all pre-eighth-century religious art in the Byzantine empire.
In Byzantine schools, classical Greek literature was:
The basis of the curriculum, with much study of the epics of Homer.
Women from wealthy Byzantine families:
Were educated at home by tutors, but did engage in more public intellectual discussions.
The Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia was influential in the history of architecture because it:
Placed a massive dome on a building with a square shape.
The word “Islam” means:
By the late sixth century C.E., the economy of Arabia was:
Commercially sophisticated and was intersected by many trade routes.
The “Hirjah” (“Hegira”) refers to the Prophet Muhammad’s move from:
Mecca to Medina.
In their worship of Allah, Muslims worship:
The same deity worshipped by Christians and Jews.
The Qu’ran contains:
The revelations sent by God to Muhammad.
Islam spread so quickly in the seventh and eighth centuries because:
Some local populations welcomed Muslim conquest.
During the expansion of the Islamic caliphate, Muslim rule was often preferred to Persian or Byzantine because:
The caliphate extracted fewer taxes from conquered populations than these empires.
The Shiite party arose among Muslims because:
Of a dispute about the proper succession of caliphs in seventh-century Arabia.
In comparison to the Umayyad, the Abbasid caliphate:
Adopted more of the style of Persian royal absolutism.
The Umayyads of Al-Andalus and the Abbasids of Persia competed for dominance through:
Trying to surpass each other in support of literary and artistic production.
The Shiite claim to legitimacy rests on the direct connection to Muhammad through his daughter:
Compared to medieval Europe in the central Middle Ages (800-1100), the Islamic world was:
Manufactured and traded goods widely in Africa, Europe, and Asia.
Within Islam, social mobility was encouraged because of:
The teachings of Muhammad, which stressed the equality of all Muslim men.
Sexual relations within upper-class Muslim society around the year 1000 differed from classical Greek and Roman patterns because:
Muslim men were permitted to have more than one wife, whereas Greek and Roman men were not.
Opportunity for advancement in Islamic cultures ideally depended on:
One’s ability and one’s talent.
Charlemagne and Harun al-Rashid formed an alliance partially because of their shared enemy, the:
Historians looking for a rupture in western European attitudes toward ancient Roman culture and traditions will likely find it between the lives of:
Gregory of Tours and Charlemagne.
Most people in the early Middle Ages facilitated economic transactions by using:
Food and labor.
The Merovingian dynasty in France traced its origin back to Clovis’s legendary grandfather, Merovech, who was believed to be:
A sea monster.
Monasteries in the early Middle Ages were:
Places of political, religious, and economic import.
The gradual conversion of the early medieval European countryside to Christianity was carried out primarily by:
Monks who founded new monasteries in frontier areas.
Why were so many convents (monastic houses for women) founded during the seventh century C.E.?
Convents met a variety of social and spiritual needs for women of all classes.
As a theologian, Pope Gregory I is regarded as the successor to:
A long-term result of Boniface anointing Pepin on behalf of the papacy was that:
The power of kings was theoretically limited.
As a Christian king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne:
Took responsibly for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government.
Underlying the Carolingian Renaissance was the basic conviction that:
Learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested.
Charlemagne reformed writing in his empire by:
Creating a simplified script and introducing punctuation.
Which was the most significant event in creating Byzantine hostility toward the Latin Christian world?
The coronation of Charlemagne as Roman emperor on Christmas Day, 800.
Scandinavian traders turned to raiding because:
Instability in the Abbasid empire had made travel on their traditional trade routes difficult.
The Vikings are generally regarded as being a destructive force in European history:
But such a view may not be correct in light of the principalities they established across northern Europe.
Once they conquered a territory, Viking populations:
Assimilated quickly within local populations.
One of the few rulers to successfully defend his lands against the Vikings was:
The economic base of the Abbasid caliphate lay in:
The Tigris-Euphrates basin of Mesopotamia.
The Abbasid empire effectively came to an end in:
930, when the Shiites’ Army attacked and captured Mecca.
The overall unity of the Muslim world disintegrated during the tenth and eleventh centuries because of:
Increasing intolerance of regional and ethnic differences of practice and belief within Islam.
T/F: The Byzantine empire was never stable because of the intrigue and violence that constantly occurred at the imperial court.
The Byzantine empire was actually very stable because of its strong and self-perpetuating political institutions.
T/F: Byzantine culture was the means by which the heritage of Western civilization was preserved for the Europe where Greek had become very rare.
T/F: Muhammad wrote about his revelations in the Qu’ran.
Muhammad’s revelations are written in the Qu’ran, but they were written by Muhammad’s followers, not by Muhammad himself.
T/F: One factor in the success of cities in Arabia was the protracted wars between the Byzantine empire and Persia, which made the Arabian trade routes safer than the northern ones.
T/F: Islam is a religion without sacraments or priests.
T/F: After 750 C.E., the Umayyad dynasty abandoned Spain and focused its rule on Damascus.
They actually abandoned Damascus to retreat to their territories in Spain.
T/F: Spain was largely abandoned by Islam as a cultural backwater.
T/F: Islam created its own culture and actively destroyed the artifacts of those civilizations that came before them.
T/F: The division between Islam and Christianity was not an impenetrable barrier as communication and gifts between the Abbasid and Carolingian empires illustrates.
T/F: Sufism is a mystical sect of Judaism whose members stressed contemplation and ecstasy.
Sufism is a mystical sect of Islam, not Judaism.
T/F: By the seventh century, western Europe had become a more fluid economy in which luxury goods and coinage circulated, albeit to differing degrees, among all levels of society.
T/F: Pope Gregory was not only a reformer of the Church and theologian, but was the first pope to break free of Byzantine control and establish an autonomous, Western-oriented Latin church.
T/F: Charles Martel is regarded as one of the founders of the Frankish kingdom due to his defeat of a Muslim force near Paris.
T/F: Charlemagne regularly chose the bishops in his empire.
T/F: By 1000, Vikings had reached North America.