Which welfare change and social policy theories strengthen the welfare state provision?

Which welfare change and social policy theories strengthen the welfare state provision?

Introduction

The purpose of this essay is to write a short history of welfare state and the welfare change and social policy theories, which strengthen the welfare state provision. This report will also discuss and evaluate the theories that influenced the delivery of the welfare scheme, meeting the command that changed the UK society. Moreover, my answer will illustrate and investigate mainly on the areas like Welfare State history, Socialism, William Beveridge Report, Liberal Individualism, Marxism theories, social democracy, it will also discuss further changes in Welfare State, during the Thatcher’s, office regime relating to Health and Social Security reform.

Main Discussion

Martin Powell & Martin Hewitt (2002) describe the Second World War experience and the changes, which brought the evacuation concerning the about food abolition mean-tested of the household as a greater planning of which both of the economy and the producer which as seeing as a weapons of the welfare state, Emergency medical Scheme.

Powell and Hewitt mention about 1942 Beveridge report that was frequently witness as a chronological moment of the wartime, as innovation planning of the welfare state. Furthermore William Beveridge also observed the ‘five giant evil’s’ problem as the defeat, which he named as Squalor, want, disease, ignorance and idleness. however, his aim toward the social insurance system, was that all workers in the Britain paid same rate of National Insurance contribution and they will received the same amount of the benefit at any point in time of need. The mean-tested, which was underpinned with national assistance that was intended to distribute of the ‘national minimum’ across the UK. William Beveridge measured the above minimum support that individuals have the power over their expansion of the chain of private command and the welfare state voluntaries above the minimum. The intention of the working system, and the statement of the male’s full employment ,towards a national health service and the family allowances, that has been placed, at the same time as seeing as the previous national insurance system. Martin Powell and Martin Hewitt, sight the example of Beveridge William, believes that a ‘male breadwinner model’ that was accepted as married men may work and come home with salary for their family, at the same time married women cannot work talk less of bringing money home which they are generally unable to engaged themselves with the paid work. Moreover Beveridge illustrated the word famous, that women often seeing with other duties, which was mainly unpaid care in terms of household. [pg29].

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O46-BeveridgeReport.html Viewed [18/03/11]

The coalition government war time passed the education act in 1944.This education act was implemented by the Labour party, and it was approved after the general election in 1945 by conservative government.

The William Beverage report, was all over again explain more about the insufficient and the heartbreaker, he also discussed about the support plans of the full employment, (NHS) national Health services, equal of benefit to all the UK residents, which was arrange alongside to clearing the benchmarks of the fairness towards the justice, which has been lost view, therefore the current mass, connecting to not enough, in addition to demoralization of the welfare state.

In this same year 1946, government eventually completed and approved the national insurance act, which was the main problem issue that affect many people in the Britain. This provision was provided to benefits like unemployment, sickness, maternity, widow, and the retirement’s pension benefit. In the other hand, all this provision was mainly prepared for the purpose of the UK resident, exploit in support to the serious catering of their needs right from their birth to last day of their year or death.

The promise of Labour government after Second World War is to reconstruct Britain by providing job for UK residence, also continue to promote the high standard levels of employment, after the war. The rate of unemployment in the Britain was decrease in1946, by 2.5% also the post-war giant bad feeling like lack of unprocessed material and the huge war debts. On the other hand the Labour Government remained to maintain the roughly full employment service through the privatisation.

The Britain chronological emphasised and pointed out of the significance of the non welfare state. Harris (1992) as cite legislation consensus after the war shaped in England, which was emphasis as one of the identical, centralized of the bureaucratic and also described as a ‘public’ welfare state system in the whole of the European country and the indeed of the current world. However, hundred years ago, one of the social political analyst, analyzed and observed, at the same time envisage that the precise conflicting, in welfare state provision in the UK, which specifically stated as was and also will carry on to grow restrictedly, unpaid, part-time intimate within size through distinguish with the many powerful alongside with statistic system and the continentals neighbours especially in Germany. Martine Powell and Martin Hewitt (2002) cited in Daunton (1996), which argued that the feature trait which was link with the provision of the education, well-being and culture were absent to the voluntary culture to the friendly civilization, and also unpaid hospitals. Lewis mentioned about the importance of the ‘welfare state’ nature in1995 that we should about to face the simple increase of the welfare state intervention, rather than considering the story of the present welfare state. he also added that UK have seeing as more accurate, in which Britain have got hold of the economy welfare, however, place like voluntary sector, moreover, market and family has played extremity part at the different time.

The Labour Government, declare that there must be a change towards the welfare state. Regardless the change around the world, including the work changes in the society. The families, working women and the age population in the society are anticipating to be increased.

The conservative leader Margaret Thatcher became the Prime Minister under the conservative government in 1979, with the promise towards the free market mainly of the anti-collectivist. The direction of the neo-liberal aims to pursue by decreasing the management of the economic activities role and the provision of the welfare in addition to enlargement associated of the market competitor and the private sector.

The Marxists theories reflecting welfare state gives an explanation on the complex development of the welfare state. Martin Powell and Martin Hewitt (2002) as cited the ‘Theory of Marxist’ in (Gough 1979), stressed out “the importance which support and power the economic account, put in placed within the economic base which plays a major part on the events with the superstructure. The key writers such as Wilding and George mentioned the way Marxist expressed how the development of the welfare state is found in 1993, in which Marxist analyzed and described the capitalism functions in the economic system.

Martin Hewitt & Martin Powell, (2002) as quoted that things like the structure and the economic based can be influent within the society, which will end up determining offer of the institution within the society Which builds its supperstructure, capitalism has an influence which can determined production mode.”

The political system `ideology leading’, by the social service, and family of the other big institutions are mostly other than the production of capitalism, however, are not totally determined. At the same time the production possess the capitalism as top mode of generalization earnings including the purpose

The Marx and Engels original scrip which take position in the nineteen century, welfare state period explained how problematic defining the concept of the welfare state with the capitalism society as in most Marxist writer fancy the used of the term of welfare state capitalism of the factor “Act as a New Poor Law”, emphasised on the maintenance of the social harmony by out looking the appearance of the social capitalism order, what should know the best interest of the workers accumulation is associated with the industry profitability, and economic growth and good investments of the welfare expenditure which can be categorized in to three parts: the production cost of labour is lower through the social consumption and the productivity of labour is increased by social investment and the expenses which is necessary for social stability. The key writer such as Gough questioned the welfare state stability as a wide range system for the humans needy, and the migrations of rigours within the free marketing economy or the agency reprocessing: He also state that profit and the accumulation as well can be defended as social wage, one of the Gough question is whether it was capitalist fraud or the working class victory.[pg 1, 79].

After the conservative arrival to the administrative office, Thatcher circular removes the Crosland’s, other than it was very late of pestering and rushed to complete the political party, comes into view of the small influence concerning, both of the local or the central level. Margaret Thatcher, as the state secretary supervised a time when many numbers of the comprehensive schools increased rapidly more, than some previous time before. By the time she left the office the percentage of the children, which has attending the comprehensives have twice over sixty percent (Sullivan 1996) as cited in M.Powell and M. Hewitt (2002). The issues of two report of the Labour government in 1960s, neither the issues that lead them to great deal action set up of the Public School Commission before the left of the Labour government office in 1970. (Glennerster1995). Thatcher’s time as an education secretary period time saw as the masterwork contradiction in 1996. Subsequent to the opposing of the education comprehensive, in which she put an end to school children’s school free milk, that serve up roughly ?8m per year, but this action of her, made her well known as ‘Margaret Thatcher milk snatcher’. However, Margaret Thatcher becomes an education minister expansionary conventional, which elevate the age school leaving and she also keep the Open University on or after closing. She subject a White paper free education, the structure growth of ninety percent, in which was describe as four year old should be in the nursery education, and also teachers should be increased by forty percent and the higher education should expansion in place by 60% within the next ten years. (Sullivan 1996:159)

Thatcher’s regime reform terms including the public spending and the social services in order to get the Britain’s economy shaped and well-organized. “After some few years of Thatcher in power, she cut the spending expenditure down by one billion pounds together with the cut within the housing, employment, energy, education, transport, industrial subsidies and the foreign aid”. This division of cut did not affect the armed forces and the police officers. The essential changes still required the government to lend three billion pounds.

In the (1945) council housing and the owner-occupation continued to stretch whilst the private rented constantly falling. Powell and Hewitt, (2002) as cited that the minister of housing Aneurin Bevan’s duty has claimed that the high standard of council property was part of plan and also it will draw the attention of the social mix, as stated the high quality of the health care, which involves the national Healthcare Service (NHS) and the hospital districts. The Powell (1995a) referred to the minister’s forfeits that they quality for the quantity, as a result of the property organism of a figures game, which was placed numbers of stress on to the property built, other than the quality of the houses. However, this was move up the trend towards the tower blocks to facilitate the first come of the architectural funding, although this became out of favour of the live in resident. Conservative aims was to turn round the ‘property owning democracy’ gradually turn into the light Labour policy of the electoral realism, and also to placed the tax relief on mortgages in the other hand illustrated as a good economic welfare, and the majority of owner occupation turn into ordinary tenure. Conservative made attempt of turn over the private rented right through the Rent Act of 1957, most of the contentious and also the resentfully fought period of the legislation. (Glennerster 1995: 83). Moreover, conservative argued and described the reason why private rented was not favoured was because of their low production or shortage. [pg 31]

The Powell and Hewitt (200) welfare state and welfare change as cited that the council dwelling sold during the Thatcher 14th years in service to tenant was1.5 million. Therefore the amount of families who purchased their home was 67 percent. In the other hand the homeowner occupier were favoured within the middle of 1990. (Arnstein 456). The public business massively generated lots of money through the houses put on the market for sale. The health care areas observe the input of the hospital building schedule in year of 1962, in which the hospital plan were set a design on other, which allowed resident, to attain the distribution of an equal right of the hospital beds all over the UK, situated in the new region general hospitals, and also this was the era of the restructuring. The most analysts agreed and decided that the tripartite scheme on the National Health Service (NHS) idea was far reaching. But, whereas there was an agreement on the general diagnosis, also there was a small amount on the solution. In 1968 and 1970, the Labour issued Green Paper, which conservative carried out different types of reorganisation within the year of 1973, which was due and ready to put into practice in 1974. The social democratic welfare regime clearly mentioned the example of the NHS de-commoditise, according to healthy fits belief with Esping-Anderson’s (1990) of the social democratic government. They needs to be realistic in view and aspire within the health equal treatment, nevertheless it is very obvious at one point that Britain welfare state does not planned to delivered more than inadequate idea of the ‘equality of entitlement’ or position (Marshall 1963; Crosland 1964; Powell1995a). Whereas, radical stated that nature of companionship and also Bevan’s social combine with the health and housing had not been able to achieve. The socialism qualitative agenda, English ethical socialism and the Christian socialism have not completely acknowledged. (Bevan1978; Powell 1995a) [pg 3].

The Labour NHS acknowledged the different category of the inequality according to the Powell (1997a).”The reallocation of the NHS funding was introduced and formulate as ‘overprovided’ in the area like London to underprovided’ at the district area like North and Midlands. The main concern, that was challenge more of the resource towards the ‘Cinderella group’ like mental illness, people with mentally handicapped and the old age people who likely to stay longer in the hospitals, of the NHS slum. The commission agency was set to investigate the health inequality”. [pg44)

Social Security found set out an comprehensive time of predicament as of middle of 19970’s to the year of 1980’s, other than prospect of no any longer difficulty comprise exist distinguished awaiting at the present. Also this source of funding provided to relief people that are unable to work, in other to be able to maintain them. Social security found was describe as an important financial protection in which people with children, elderly and the disable people may entitle to, for their upkeep. Hewitt and Powell (2000) as cite The Green Paper in Timmins (1996: 371) which was describe the Conservative first public spending, which stated that ‘public expenditure’ was the heart of the British’s current financial difficulties.’ The welfare state was analysed as the bloodsucker, in which suck out the human blood from the other productivities element within the economy. Chancellor Geoffrey first budget decreased the peak benchmark of the income tax rate, which indicates that the balance rolling cut between the public and private spending will have to be changed. He also reveals the breaking link relating to the pension and the earning in his announcement. On the other hand the break off from the public spending, as well as a sequence cut of the social security benefit, was the attack on the benefit deception, which freezes up the child benefit. The cheese-paring cuts fall short and stop the enlargement bill of the social security.

Social security, main objective was apparent appointed John Moore as a Secretary of the State. Regardless of the policy obligation that the child benefit will still continued to pays out, in 1987 to 1988 the universal benefit pushed people more in to dependent relative of the means-tested benefit. Age 16 and 17 years old right of income support was reserved, and saw as part of the government plan, which guarantees and set young adult a training schema for all the youth that not in full time education or working.The (CSA) child support agency was formed in 1990, in other to aspire and recovered the cost maintenance from the fathers absent. However this was an extensive support standardizes, the CSA to become one of the largest organizational disaster in the pass history of the Britain welfare state. Another example was the mortgage, which pays interest on the earliest months of the unemployment and also transformed from the public to the private responsibilities. An individual were advised to purchase the private insurance to cover up thing like possibility. This housing support marked the end of basic minimum state essential. The number three policy later emerged’ jobseeker’s allowance’ at the period of the Prime Minister John Major.

Conclusion

All together this is to classify the outlook of the writer disagreement, which states that right and left report of welfare state can be defined into many categories, which can be out looked the subject of the socialism. On the other hand, for individual to compare their views such as the Labour and Conservative party, that they are more traditionalist. Each side have many primary and secondary, which link to welfare state beliefs that sight many example into an authoritarian conflict demonstrate mainly on the two parties in agreement of the welfare state, originally policies that fixed through the William Beveridge report. The welfare state conflict started in 1970’s as at the time the policy was invalid to emerge within the opposite parties. However it is not simple that the public vote embraced Margaret Thatcher’s neo-liberalism, therefore her seventeen years all together in service happened not to br straightforward. Henceforth Labour party was stained to countable themselves throughout the year of 1980;s as the individual thrived their own vision, that appeared to be out of date and unwanted by the electorate.The Labour 1990’s gives the current picture, other than the new party that have move the budged from different areas.

Bibliography

Books

Powell, M. Hewitt, M. (2002) Welfare State and Welfare Change in Britain. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Powell, M. (1995a) the strategy of equality revisited, Journal of social policy, 24[2]:163-85.

Bevan, A.(1978) in Place of fear. London: quarter Books

William, B. (1942) Social Insurance and Allied Services (The Beveridge Report). London: HMSO

Esping-Anderson, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sullivan, M. (1996) The Development of the British Welfare State Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Whetsheaf.

Glennerster, H. (1995) British Social Policy since 1945. Oxford: Blackwell.

Timmins, N. (1996) The Five Giants. London: Fontana.

Harris, J (1992) War and Social history: Britain and Home Front during the Second World War, Contemporary European History, 1(1):17-35.

George, V. And Wilding, P. (1993) Welfare and Ideology. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Gough,I.(1979) The Political Economy of the Welfare State.London: Macmillans

Berend, I Tibor (2006). An Economic History of Twentieth-Century Europe. LA: Cambridge University Press

The Labour NHS acknowledged the different category of the inequality according to the Powell (1997a).”The reallocation of the NHS funding was introduced and formulate as ‘overprovided’ in the area like London to underprovided’ at the district area like North and Midlands. The main concern, that was challenge more of the resource towards the ‘Cinderella group’ like mental illness, people with mentally handicapped and the old age people who likely to stay longer in the hospitals, of the NHS slum. The commission agency was set to investigate the health inequality”. [pg44)

Social Security found set out an comprehensive time of predicament as of middle of 19970’s to the year of 1980’s, other than prospect of no any longer difficulty comprise exist distinguished awaiting at the present. Also this source of funding provided to relief people that are unable to work, in other to be able to maintain them. Social security found was describe as an important financial protection in which people with children, elderly and the disable people may entitle to, for their upkeep. Hewitt and Powell (2000) as cite The Green Paper in Timmins (1996: 371) which was describe the Conservative first public spending, which stated that ‘public expenditure’ was the heart of the British’s current financial difficulties.’ The welfare state was analysed as the bloodsucker, in which suck out the human blood from the other productivities element within the economy. Chancellor Geoffrey first budget decreased the peak benchmark of the income tax rate, which indicates that the balance rolling cut between the public and private spending will have to be changed. He also reveals the breaking link relating to the pension and the earning in his announcement. On the other hand the break off from the public spending, as well as a sequence cut of the social security benefit, was the attack on the benefit deception, which freezes up the child benefit. The cheese-paring cuts fall short and stop the enlargement bill of the social security.

Social security, main objective was apparent appointed John Moore as a Secretary of the State. Regardless of the policy obligation that the child benefit will still continued to pays out, in 1987 to 1988 the universal benefit pushed people more in to dependent relative of the means-tested benefit. Age 16 and 17 years old right of income support was reserved, and saw as part of the government plan, which guarantees and set young adult a training schema for all the youth that not in full time education or working.The (CSA) child support agency was formed in 1990, in other to aspire and recovered the cost maintenance from the fathers absent. However this was an extensive support standardizes, the CSA to become one of the largest organizational disaster in the pass history of the Britain welfare state. Another example was the mortgage, which pays interest on the earliest months of the unemployment and also transformed from the public to the private responsibilities. An individual were advised to purchase the private insurance to cover up thing like possibility. This housing support marked the end of basic minimum state essential. The number three policy later emerged’ jobseeker’s allowance’ at the period of the Prime Minister John Major.

Conclusion
All together this is to classify the outlook of the writer disagreement, which states that right and left report of welfare state can be defined into many categories, which can be out looked the subject of the socialism. On the other hand, for individual to compare their views such as the Labour and Conservative party, that they are more traditionalist. Each side have many primary and secondary, which link to welfare state beliefs that sight many example into an authoritarian conflict demonstrate mainly on the two parties in agreement of the welfare state, originally policies that fixed through the William Beveridge report. The welfare state conflict started in 1970’s as at the time the policy was invalid to emerge within the opposite parties. However it is not simple that the public vote embraced Margaret Thatcher’s neo-liberalism, therefore her seventeen years all together in service happened not to br straightforward. Henceforth Labour party was stained to countable themselves throughout the year of 1980;s as the individual thrived their own vision, that appeared to be out of date and unwanted by the electorate.The Labour 1990’s gives the current picture, other than the new party that have move the budged from different areas.

Bibliography

Books

Powell, M. Hewitt, M. (2002) Welfare State and Welfare Change in Britain. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Powell, M. (1995a) the strategy of equality revisited, Journal of social policy, 24[2]:163-85.

Bevan, A.(1978) in Place of fear. London: quarter Books

William, B. (1942) Social Insurance and Allied Services (The Beveridge Report). London: HMSO

Esping-Anderson, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sullivan, M. (1996) The Development of the British Welfare State Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Whetsheaf.

Glennerster, H. (1995) British Social Policy since 1945. Oxford: Blackwell.

Timmins, N. (1996) The Five Giants. London: Fontana.

Harris, J (1992) War and Social history: Britain and Home Front during the Second World War, Contemporary European History, 1(1):17-35.

George, V. And Wilding, P. (1993) Welfare and Ideology. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Gough,I.(1979) The Political Economy of the Welfare State.London: Macmillans

Berend, I Tibor (2006). An Economic History of Twentieth-Century Europe. LA: Cambridge University Press