Why Do You Want to Participate in Early the Early College Program?
ADOLESCENT COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT According to Piaget, around age 11 young people enter the formal operations stage in which they develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking. A characteristic of formal operational thinking = hypothetic-deductive reasoning. When faced with a problem they start with a hypothesis or prediction about variables that might affect the outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences.
Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world A second characteristic of Piaget’s formal operational thought is propositional thought – the ability to evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real life situations Consequences of Adolescent Cognitive Development Cognitive development leads to distorted images of the relationship between the self and others. Imaginary audience – belief that they are the focus of everyone else’s attention and concern.
As a result they become extremely self-conscious A second cognitive distortion is the personal fable – they are sure others are observing and thinking about them they develop an inflated opinion of their own importance – a feeling that they are special and unique EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESENCE Erikson suggested that identity is the major personality achievement of adolescents – it involves defining who one is, what one values and the direction one chooses to pursue in life.
Erikson called the psychological conflict of adolescence Identity versus Role Confusion Research has identified 4 identity statuses: Identity Achievement – commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration Identity Moratorium – exploration without committing Identity Foreclosure – commitment in the absence of exploration Identity Diffusion – an apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment Peer pressure is great during adolescence
Adolescents feel pressured to conform to the peer culture –dress, grooming Problems of Adolescence Depression Suicide EARLY ADULTHOOD COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Contrary to what Piaget suggested, researchers argue that cognitive development continues beyond adolescence to Postformal Thought Several theories in support: William Perry Relativistic thinking – the ability to recognize the legitimacy of competing points of view Gisella Vief
Pragmatic thinking –a tool in which logic becomes the tool for solving real-world problems. Proposed that postformal thinking involves adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations. EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD Erikson suggested that early adulthood encompasses Intimacy versus Isolation stage, which is reflected in the you person’s thoughts and feeling about making a permanent commitment to an intimate partner.
The social clock – age graded expectations for major life events Establishing intimate relationships usually end in marriage, then come children. Decision to have children COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Does intelligence decline with age? Yes and No Fluid Intelligence – depends heavily on basic information processing skills Crystallized Intelligence – refers to skills that depend on accumulate knowledge and experience, good judgment, and mastery of social conventions – abilities acquired because they are values within the individual’s culture.
EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Erikson’s crisis in middle adulthood = generativity versus stagnation – it involves reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation Midlife Crisis – the inner turmoil during the transition to middle adulthood Empty Nest Syndrome Sandwich generation – to refer to the idea that middle aged adults must care for multiple generations at the same time. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN LATE ADULTHOOD