COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT (WID)
APPROACH AND THE GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT (GAD)
Gender by definition refers to the characteristics, trades, attributes or even roles that are expected for males and females by a given culture or society. Some can say the general social meaning of being male or female.
The WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT (WID) this approach was developed in the early 1970’s this came to use during the United Nation Decade of women (1972-1985).
This approach viewed women as passive beneficiaries of the development according to Miller, C and Razavi, S 1995 , in actual fact there was a growing realization that women were being left out of the economic development or that they were not benefiting significantly from it. The WID therefore views women’s lack o participation as the main problem. While on the other hand the GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT (GAD) approach emerged in the early 1980’s , it emerged from the limitations of both the WID and WAD (WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT) its main objective was to remove disparities in social, economic and political equality between men and women.
Back to the WID it mainly focused on women, the approach seeks to integrate women into economic development through legal and administrative support. The WID approach has enhanced peoples understanding of the women’s developmental needs particularly the need to improve statistical measures of women’s work and to provide women with more opportunities for education and employment. WID has helped mainstream gender issues in many developed agencies and polices as well as increase women’s visibility. However the GAD approach argues that women’s status in society is in the national, regional and global economies .
It is not just on moment but also on the social relations between women and men, be it the workplace or in other settings. Gender relations are seen as the key determinant of women’s position in society , not as immutable reflections of order but as socially constructed patterns of behavior. The GAD approach sees gender division of labour the work done by women in the household. Women are usually in a disadvantage position in the work place as compared to men , promotion of gender equality implies explicit attention to women’s needs , interest and perspectives .
The GAD approach looks at the impact of development on both women and men, it seeks to ensure that both men and women participate in and benefit from development. However the GAD also recognizes that women’s may be involved in development but not necessarily benefit from it (Moyoyeta, 2004). The GAD also pays special attension to the oppression of women in the family or the “family sphere” of women’s lives as a result we have seen projects develop addressing issues such as domestic violence, and violence against women. The GAD approach assumptions were that they were unequal power ratios between man and women
Prevents equitable developments (Makombe, 2010) Moreover the biggest contribution of GAD is the inclusion of man into the approach, it does not exclusively emphasize the solidarity of women. This approach acknowledges that women spent a lot of time bearing, raising children , cooking , washing , fetching water caring for the sick and elderly attending to fields and small stock. It also observes that women have no control over their fertility and over productive resources. It also helped us to understand that the gender division of labor gives triple roles thus the reproductive productive and community to women in society.
The WID had the following limitations that however as already mentioned led to the formation of the GAD, the limitations of the WID are by exclusively targeting women WID creates tension, suspicion and hostility. It also does not challenge gender relations and assumes that these will change as women become economic partners in development. Furthermore the approach focuses on integration of women into ongoing development strategies. In as much as the GAD was a better approach to WID it also had its limitations, the GAD advocates for the re-examination or deconstruction of gender roles hence it is likely to depend on the goodwill of men.
In a nutshell the GAD approach was a better approach to the WID; therefore the gad approach liberates, empowers and promotes partnership and equitable distribution of resources and benefits. WHICH OF THE TWO APPROACHES HAS CONTRIBUTED MORE TO INVOLVEMENT OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT  The WID approach hoped to bring women into development through providing them with opportunities for employment or engaging them in income generating projects. This would, as it were, remove them from the private sphere into the public sphere.
The GAD approach goes beyond seeing development as mainly economic well being but also that the social and mental well being of a person is important. It should also be noted that the biggest contribution of GAD is the inclusion of men into the approach. The approach brings in the part played by some women in perpetuating gender inequality when these women connive with patriarchy to exploit, subordinate and oppress young women in the third world. Women in Development wanted to remove patriarchy and replace it with matriarchy as they believed that every man has a woman to exploit, oppress and subordinate.
GAD concentrate more on the idea that women must be lifted from poverty and contribute more to the developments efforts. It argues that women have a role to play both in reproduction and in production process, it acknowledges their economic roles and class decisions for development to take place. GAD argues that understanding women and men`s roles and responsibilities as part of the planning of development interventions helps to improve project effectiveness and ensures that both men and women plays their part in national development activities.
GAD approach does not only concentrate on economic development for women and men only but it also views the social and mental being of person as very important. 1. Boserup, E (1970) Women’s Role in Economic Development. St. Martin’s Press, New York 2. Hazel Reeves and Sally Baden, (2000) Gender and Development: Concepts and Definitions, institute of Development, Brighton 3. Schaefer, RT 2006 , Sociology: A brief introduction, 6th Ed , McGraw Hill, New York. 4. Makombe K . (2010) “Young Women Speak” Sable Press : Harare 5.
MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY Faculty of Science and Technology Name Christine T Mhike Reg Number R12960Y Programme BSc Computer Science Mode of Entry Conventional ModuleGS 201 – Gender Studies Lecturer Mrs Mukoni Level 2. 1 Due date22 March 2013