How did physical geography influence the lives of early humans?
Early humans were hunters and gathers whose survival depended on the availability of wild plants and animals
What were the characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies?
were nomadic, simple tools, learned to make and use fire, lived in clans, oral language, and cave art
How did the beginning of agriculture and the domestication of animals produce the rise of settled communities?
They didn’t have to move with the animal herds anymore
How does archaeology provide knowledge of early human life?
Archaeologists study past cultures by locating and analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts. Archaeologists apply scientific tests such as carbon dating to analyze fossils and artifacts.
Why did ancient civilizations develop in river valleys?
These river valleys offered rich soils for agriculture, and they tended to be in locations easily protected from invasion by nomadic peoples
Where were the earliest civilizations located?
They were in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and China
When did these civilizations exist?
about 3500 to 500 BC
What were the social, political, and economic characteristics of early civilizations?
There were hereditary rulers and a rigid class system in society. They created the world’s first states, a centralized government, and written law codes. They are also credited with the creation of metal tools and weapons, increasing agricultural surplus, increasing trade along rivers and by sea, development of the world’s first cities, and specialization of labor.
What religious traditions developed in ancient civilizations?
Polytheism was practiced by most early civilizations. Monotheism was practiced by the Hebrews.
What were essential beliefs of Judaism?
Belief in one God, Torah contains written records and beliefs, Ten Commandments state moral and religious conduct
How did Judaism influence Western civilization?
Judaism brought the ten commandments into most civilizations. Most laws are based on the ideals behind them.
What forms of language and writing existed in early civilizations?
Pictograms, hieroglyphics, cuneiform, and alphabet
How did Persia govern its empire?
Tolerated conquered peoples, developed imperial bureaucracy, Zoroastrianism as a religion, and created a road system
Why were physical geography and location important to the development of Indian civilization?
Physical barriers such as the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush, and the Indian Ocean made invasion more difficult. Mountain passes in the Hindu Kush provided invasion routes into the Indian subcontinent. The Indus and Ganges were the most important rivers in the Indian subcontinent.
What impact did the Aryans have on India?
They asserted their dominance, and created a rigid caste system, which influenced all social interactions and choices of occupations
Why was the caste system central to Indian culture?
It was hereditary
What were the accomplishments of the Mauryan and Gupta empires?
Gupta started the golden age of classical Indian culture, and contributed mathematics, new textiles, and literature. Mauryan formed the first Indian empire, had a vast army, increased trade, and had 2 well defined religions
What are the beliefs of the Hindu religion?
Believe in many forms of one major deity, reincarnation, and karma. Vedas and Upanishads are their sacred writings
How did Hinduism influence Indian society and culture?
The caste system in religious law was based on occupations
What are the beliefs of Buddhism?
They believe in the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
How did Buddhism spread?
Asoka’s missionaries and their writings spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia.
Why was the Great Wall of China built?
The Great Wall was built by Qin Shi Huangdi as a line of defense against invasions.
What were contributions of classical China to world civilization?
Classical China contributed the civil service system, paper, porcelain, and silk
Why were Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism important in the formation of Chinese culture?
Yin/Yang represented opposites for Confucianism and Taoism. Taoism contributed to humility, a simple life, inner peace, and harmony with nature. Confucianism supported the belief that humans are good, not bad, respect for elders, and a code of politeness.
How did the mountains, seas, islands, harbors, peninsulas, and straits of the Aegean Basin shape Greek economic, social, and political development and patterns of trade and colonization?
Mountainous terrain helped and hindered the development of city-states. Greek cities were designed to promote civic and commercial life. Colonization related to overpopulation and the search for arable land for agriculture.
How did mythology help the early Greek civilization explain the natural world and the human condition?
It explained natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events
What impact did Greek mythology have on later civilizations and the contemporary world?
Symbols and images in Western literature, art, monumental architecture, and politics come from Greek mythology
How did democracy develop in Athens?
Citizens had political rights and the responsibility of civic participation in government. Women, slaves, and foreigners had no political rights.
How did Sparta differ from Athens?
Sparta was an oligarchy with a rigid social structure, and the society was militaristic and aggressive. Athens had many stages in evolution of their government. They also had democratic principles such as direct democracy, public debate, and duties of the citizen
Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture?
The Persian wars united Athens and Sparta against the Persian Empire. Athenian victories over the Persians at Marathon and Salamis left Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea. Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture.
Why was the Peloponnesian War important to the spread of Greek culture?
It was caused in part by competition for control of the Greek world—Athens and the Delian League v. Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. It resulted in the slowing of cultural advance and the weakening of political power.
Why was the leadership of Pericles important to the development of Athenian life and Greek culture?
Pericles extended democracy, so most adult males had equal voice. He had Athens rebuilt after destruction in Persian Wars; the Parthenon is an example of this reconstruction.
What were some important contributions of Greek culture to Western civilization?
Drama, poetry, history, sculpture, architecture, science, mathematics, and philosophy were all important contributions.
How did the empire of Alexander the Great establish a basis for the spread of Hellenistic culture?
He established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of India, and extended Greek cultural influences
How was geographic location important to economic, social, and political development of ancient Rome?
Rome was centrally located in the Mediterranean Basin and distant from eastern Mediterranean powers. The Italian Peninsula, the Alps, and the Mediterranean Sea all provided protection, and sea-borne commerce was made easier for them.
What was the source of Roman mythology?
It was based on the Greek polytheistic religion.
Symbols and images in literature, art, monumental architecture, and politics in other civilizations.
What impact did Roman mythology have on later civilizations?
How did the government of the Roman Republic become more democratic in its decision making?
It became a representative democracy, with assemblies, a Senate, Consuls, and the laws of Rome codified as Twelve Tables.
Why was Rome able to conquer Carthage and then go on to extend its influence across the entire Mediterranean basin and much of Western Europe?
Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade in those places.
Why did the Roman Republic fail to survive challenges by Julius Caesar?
It caused civil wars over his power
How did military conquests alter economic and social life in Rome?
It caused the devaluation of Roman currency
How did an imperial monarchy come to rule Rome?
Failure to provide for peaceful succession of Emperors allowed an imperial monarchy come to power
What was the Pax Romana?
Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule
What was the impact of the Pax Romana on the Roman Empire?
It helped the expansion and solidification of the Roman Empire in general
How did Christianity become established within the Roman Empire?
It was adopted and legalized by Emperor Constantine
What were the essential beliefs of the early Christian faith?
It was monotheistic, said that Jesus was both Son and incarnation of God, believed in life after death, and the New Testament was the sacred writing.
How and why did Christianity spread?
It was carried by the Apostles, including Paul, throughout the Roman Empire.
What was the impact of the early Church in the late Roman Empire?
The Church became an example of moral authority. Loyalty to the church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor. The Church also helped unify Western Europe.
How did Roman achievements influence Western civilization?
They contributed roads, arches, and mythology. They improved public health, and also came up with the principle of “innocent until proven guilty.”
Why did the Western Roman Empire decline?
Deflation, loss of faith in Rome, civil conflict, the cost of defense, and attacks on their borders were all parts of the decline of the empire.
Why was Constantinople established as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire?
It was a crossroads for trade, and was an easily fortified site on a peninsula bordering natural harbor
What was the influence of Justinian’s codification of Roman law on the Byzantine Empire and later legal codes?
He provided the basis for the law codes of Western Europe
What was Justinian’s influence on the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and its economy?
Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity.
What were the contributions of Byzantine art and architecture?
They made mosaics in public and religious structures, and had religious icons.
How did Greek and Roman culture survive within the Byzantine Empire?
They continued developing Greco-Roman traditions, using the Greek language, and following the Greek Orthodox Church. Greek and Roman knowledge was preserved in Byzantine libraries
What factors produced the division within the Christian Church?
The cultural and political differences between the eastern and western Roman Empire, such as different practices and different authority figures, weakened the unity of the Christian Church and led to its division.
Why did the Byzantine Empire have so much influence on religion, culture, and trade in Russia and Eastern Europe?
Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion, culture, and trade routes.
Where did the Islamic religion originate? Where did it spread?
It originateed in Mecca and Medina. It spread across Asia and Africa, and into Spain.
What are the beliefs, traditions, and customs of Islam?
They are monotheistic and believe in Allah. They follow the Quran and the five pillars of Islam. They accept prophets from Judaism and Christianity, including Moses and Jesus
How did geography influence the rapid expansion of territory under Muslim rule?
Trade routes from Mecca and Medina provided easy access to the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and Central Asia
How did political and cultural geography facilitate trade and cultural activity in the early Islamic lands?
The Arabic language spread with Islam and made trade easier throughout Islamic lands.
What were some major historical turning points that marked the spread and influence of Islamic civilization?
Some major historical points include the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem and Damascus, the Muslim defeat at the Battle of Tours, and the division of the Sunni and Shi’a.
How did Islamic civilization preserve and extend ancient Greek, Persian, and Indian learning?
Early Islamic civilization was characterized by achievements in science and the arts that transformed the Islamic world and contributed to world civilization.
What were some contributions of Islamic civilization?
They contributed mosaics, the Arabic alphabet and numerals, universities, algebra, medicine, and expanded geographic knowledge
How and why did the Church grow in importance during the Middle Ages?
The Roman Catholic Church grew in importance after Roman authority declined.
How did a feudal society develop in Europe during the Middle Ages?
The decline of Roman influence in Western Europe left people with little protection against invasion, so they entered into feudal agreements with land-holding lords who promised them protection.
How did the medieval manor function as a social and economic system?
It had a rigid class structure and self-sufficient manors.
How did Charlemagne revive the idea of the Roman Empire?
The alliance between Frankish kings and the church reestablished Roman culture in Western Europe.
How did invasions by the Angles, Saxons, Magyars, and Vikings influence the development of Europe?
They disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe.
Where were the major trade routes in the Eastern Hemisphere from 1000 to 1500 A.D.?
The Silk Road across Asia to the Mediterranean basin, the maritime routes across the Indian Ocean, the trans-Saharan routes across North Africa, the Northern European connections to the Black Sea, and Western European sea and river trade were all important trade routes.
How did trade facilitate the diffusion of goods and ideas among different cultures?
When people traded goods, they would take them back home, and it influences their culture
How has Japan’s geography influenced its development?
Japanese cultural development was influenced by its closeness to China.
How did Chinese culture influence Japan?
China influenced Japan in things such as writing, architecture, and religion.
Why were Shinto and Buddhism important to the development of Japanese culture?
Shinto was an ethnic religion unique to Japan, that expressed the importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors, and it coexisted with Buddhism.
What were the characteristics of civilizations in sub-Saharan Africa during the medieval period?
Trade brought important economic, cultural, and religious influences to African civilizations from other parts of the world. States and empires grew in Africa during this time.
What were the characteristics of Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations?What were the characteristics of Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations?
The Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations emerged in South and Central America, and Mexico. They were polytheistic, and at least partially agriculture based.
How did European nation-states expand their territories and consolidate their power?
They began forming nation-states in the late medieval period so it was easier to control their vast empires.
What were key events and effects of the Crusades?
Pope Urban’s speech, the capture of Jerusalem, the founding of Crusader states, the loss of Jerusalem to Saladin, and the attack by western Crusaders on Constantinople were all important events of the Crusades.
What were the effects of the Mongol invasions?
They invaded Russia, China, and Muslim states in Southwest Asia, destroying cities and countryside, which helped them create an empire.
What were the effects of the Ottoman invasions of Europe?
Constantinople fell, and they conquered the Byzantine Empire.
How did the Black Death alter economic and social institutions in much of Asia and then in Europe?
The Black Death destroyed the population of much of Asia and then the population of much of Europe. It disrupted trade and decreased the Church’s influence.
How did European scholars begin to interpret and value ancient learning?
Church scholars kept ancient literature safe in monasteries in the East and West.
How did the Crusades stimulate trade between Europe and the Muslim Empire?
The Crusades stimulated trade by introducing Europeans to many new products.
What were the economic foundations of the Renaissance?
New trade had promoted frequent contacts with the Byzantine and Muslim Empires, and this caused new economic institutions to be developed.
How did northern Italian cities benefit from their geographic location?
Their central location made it so they had easy access to trade routes connecting Europe with Middle Eastern markets.
How did Italian city-states achieve importance and develop politically?
They served as trading centers for the distribution of goods into northern Europe.
What were Machiavelli’s ideas about power?
He supported absolute power of the ruler, that the end justifies the means, and one should do good if possible, but do evil when necessary.
How did the arts and literature of the Renaissance differ from those of the Middle Ages?
The Renaissance produced new ideas that were shown in the arts, philosophy, and literature.
Who were important artists and writers of the Italian Renaissance?
Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Petrarch, and Shakespeare were all important men of the Renaissance
How did knowledge of the classical Greeks and Romans foster humanism in the Italian Renaissance?
It stimulated the study of Greek and Roman literature and culture.
How did ideas of the Italian Renaissance change as they became adopted in northern Europe?
People of the Northern Renaissance combined humanist ideas with Christianity.
Who were important artists and writers of the Northern Renaissance?
Erasmus and Sir Thomas More were important writers in the Nothern Renaissance.