World History 1 Final Exam Review

World History 1 Final Exam Review

Shi Hugandi
The first emperor of China.
Patriarchal
Male-Dominated society.
Matriarchal
Female-Dominated society
Silk Road
A system of trade routes in Ancient China.
Standardization
Making things the same throughout the empire
Pin-yin
A system for converting Chinese characters into alphabet letters.
Dynasty
Ruling families.
Civil Servent/Civil Service
An official who is part of the running the government. Also, this kind of service became a loyal and ethical group.
Pictographs
Ideas represented into picture/image form.
Filial Piety
Devotion and respect for parents and elders.
Moderation
Avoiding extremes- everything in the right amounts
Calligraphy
An art form of writing
Oracle Bones
Used to receive messages from the gods.
The 5 key relationships
1. Father to son
2. Husband to Wife
3. Older Friend to Younger Friend
4. Older sibling to Younger sibling
5. Ruler to Subject
Ban-Zhao
A writer and historian. She wrote the book lessons for women
“Raising daughters is like raising children for another family”
It means that the daughters get married and move on to her husband’s family and becomes a low class member.
One Positive and One Negative result of Feudalism
The Chinese developed new crops such as rice and wheat. This is known as crop rotation. Feudalism resulted in the period of warring states which lasted for 200 years.
Dragon bones
Dragon bones were grounded turtle shells and cow bones used for medicine
Why was China largely isolated from the rest of the known world and also able to keep an unbroken long tradition?
China was isolated from the rest of known world because they were surrounded by deserts and mountains.
The creator for the first centralized government for all China
Shi Huangdi
According to Legalism, the way to achieve order was to
Pass strict laws and enforce them with harsh punishments.
How did Han emperors select officials to run the government?
They set up a system of civil service exams.
Shi Huangdi unified the Chinese world in, in part by
Standardizing the written language and money.
In 1974, farmers digging a well about 35 miles east of Xian discovered
An army of terra-cotta warriors.
Letting nature take its course without interference is the belief of
Daoists.
Daoists believed that the best government was one that
Governed the least. .
What policies did Shi Huangdi embrace to build a strong government
Legalist.
The system of walls linked by Shi Hugandi became
The Great Wall Of China.
Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism all emerged during the
Period of Warring States.
Ways that Shi Hugandi cruelly controlled his people and protect himself from rebellion.
1. He killed many scholars.
2.He burnt books that talks about other kingdoms and other beliefs.
3. He created Legalism which tells about strict laws and harsh punishments.
4. He sent spies to weaken other governments.
5. He bribed the leaders.
6. He ordered everything to be standardized.
7. He ordered all of China’s noble families in the city capital where he could see them.
8.He divided his country into 36 districts.
Why was the Great Wall built?/Info about the Great Wall.
The Great Wall was built to unify China and to protect the country from enemies. Back then, The Great Wall did not accept any visitors. Some parts of the Great Wall are hard to find. The first sections of the wall was built in 7th century B.C.E. The Chinese feared invasion. So, The Great Wall unified China. Today, The Great Wall attracts many visitors. Plus, they are rebuilding the Wall.
The Imperial exams
1.The exams were really difficult.
2. Only 2 out of 100 passed these exams.
3. It took 24 to 72 hours to complete the test.
4. It took 20 to 30 years of studying.
5. Some people resorted to cheating.
6. The exams were stressed on moral conduct and social order.
7. You have to memorize five confucian texts.
The four inventions
1. Silk/Compass
2. Paper
3. The printing process
4. Gun powder
The philosophy of Yin and Yang
The philosophy of Yin and Yang was the balance of opposing forces. e.g. good and evil, peace and war, rain and drought,etc.
Silk
Stages of silk
1. Caterpillar stage
2. Pupa stage
3. Thread of silk
4. Harvest/Unwind
5. Prepare to make something- clean and dye the thread.
6. Weaving into material.
Rules for raising Silkworms
1. No loud noises
2. No bad smells
3. No smoking.
4. No makeup.
5. No garlic.
6. Wear simple clothing.
7. Feed the worms mulberry leaves.
Silkworm mother
A woman who takes care of silkworms.
Benefits of trade
People were trading from east to west. The idea of cultural diffusion grew. Cultural diffusion traded many items including, spices, luxury, goods, gold and silver. Items that were traded in China were tea, chinaware, perfumes and ideas and technology.
Paper
To make paper, the Chinese used natural ingredients like tree bark, bamboo, straw, cotton and old fishnets. They turned these ingredients into pulp.
How to make paper
The natural way to make paper was to add water to the pulp and pour the thin mixture on to a bamboo mat. The Chinese people then pressed out the water and let the sheet dry. The result was a light weight piece of paper.
The printing process
The Chinese people used carved wooden blocks and they spreaded ink on the blocks. They pressed ink on the paper. They used this as their printing process. They used this process for printing prayers on paper.
The compass
This invention greatly improved the ship’s abilitity to navigate over long distantces. Christopher Columbus introduced this invention to Europe at the beginning of the 14th century.
Gun powder
This is a mixture of sulphur, charcoal and other ingredients. This invention changed the way wars were fought.
The Greek Civilization
This unit talks about the Greek culture and how it influenced people today.
Direct Democracy
The citizens take direct part in a day to day government and elect their leaders.
Ostracize
Exile or banishment of a person considered a threat to a state. Original Greek word: ostrakizein
Definition: “To banish by voting with potsherds.”
Pentathlon
An Olympic competition consisting of five separate events. A discus throw, a long jump, a Javelin throw, a foot race and a wrestling match.
Original Greek Word: Pentathlon. Definition: “Contest of five.”
Barbarian
An uncultured or brutish person. Original Greek word: Barboroi. Definition: “Babblers.” Not Greek.
Down to the Sea in Ships
This article talks about how the sea is important to the Greeks.
How did the sea divide the Greeks?
The sea divided the Greeks by forming into City States. The geography was rocky and stiff.
How did the sea influence how ancient Greeks lived and worked?
The sea influenced how ancient Greeks lived and worked because the Greeks became merchants, Fishermen, they traded/import/export, they more than a fish diet, boat builders, Olive (Olive oil) and Grapes (Wine), Navy and sailors.
Helots
A conquered person who did much of the ordinary work and was treated as a slave. Spartan people who killed these slaves would get punished.
“Achilles Heel”
A weak or vulnerable factor. A human weakness towards something.
Colony
An area that is controlled.
Pentathlon
A Olympic events. These five events are a discus throw, a long jump, a Javelin throw, a foot race and a wrestling match.
Sacred way
A winding path up the side of Mount Parnassus.
Pythia
An oracle at Delphi who lives on Mount Apollo. They named the oracle this name in honor of Apollo’s victory over the serpent, Python.
Pilgrims
People who journey to a holy place.
Acropolis
A hill at the center of Athens.
Heinrich Schliemann
An important archaeologist in which he discovered the city of Hisarlik.
Hippocrates
A scientist and a doctor. He cured many diseases such as the plague broke out in Greece. He was also known as “The Father Of Medicine.” He also created the Hippocratic Oath in which doctors have to swear that they will take care of the patient.
Archimedes
A mathematician and inventor. He developed new ideas about gravity. He also invented many things such as catapults. He also worked on geometry problems. His last words were “Don’t disturb my circles.”
Why did the Greeks form city states?
The Greeks formed city states because it had its own local government and they also had a shared culture.
Why did the Greeks depend on the sea and how did it affect their lives?
The sea had a big influence on the Greeks because it allowed the Greeks to start trading exports/imports, they had more than a fish diet, they had a navy, soldiers, some Greeks became fishermen, boat builders or merchants.
Who participated in the ancient Olympics and where did the Olympics take place and how often did it occur and how did it start?
Who- Free Greek men who were 18 yrs of age or older
Where- The Olympics were held at Mt. Olympia
How often- It took place every 4 yrs
How did it start- There was a man who was running more than 26.5 miles
What were the Spartans and Athenians all about? Were they enemies, allies or both?
Spartans- Order and strength
Athenians- Freedom and creativity
They were both allies and enemies because when the Persian army invaded the Greek world, the Athenian and Spartan army worked together to drive the Persians out of Greece. They were enemies because when Athens tried to make their empire stronger by using the sea as their secret weapon. So then the Spartans got scared. They became bitter enemies which started the Peloponnesian War.
Result of the Peloponnesian War
The result was that the Spartan Army was the victor of the war. However, there was no real winner. Both sides were worn out.
Limits on Democracy
Citizens who were free Greek men over the age of 18, can be allowed to vote. Women, slaves and foreigners were given little or no right to vote.
Socrates
A Greek thinker who urged people and the students of Greece to question everything. He was then punished by violating the youth of Greece. He was then given the death penalty and drank poison in order to fufil the penalty.
Homer
An important Greek poet. He composed the Iliad, one of the most longest poems in the world.
What was one thing that Alexander left after his death?
One thing that Alexander left was the spreading of Greek culture.
Roman Civilization
In this time period, Great people such Julius Cesear and Augustus ruled Rome and there
A New Faith
This article talks Christianity, the new religion. Which developed during the persecution of the Christians.
Tolerant
Allows the existence of opinions or behaviors that one does not necessity.
Persecution
Hostility and bad treatment, especially because of race, political or religious beliefs.
Christianity as a danger to Roman society
Christianity was a danger to Roman society because it threatened the Roman way of life, Christians refuse to worship the Roman gods and the emperor and the Romans feared it was a “deadly superstition.”
Ways that Christians were persecuted
Some ways in which Christians persecuted were they were crucified, some sent to the arena, some were burned to stake, some were enslaved and some Christians were striped of their possessions.
Three reasons why Christianity continued to spread despite the violence
1. The work of the missionaries.

2. The religion applied to lots of people because of the messages of equality and compassion.

Constatine (reason three)
3. Edict of Milian stopped the persecution and emperor Theodos ordered Christianity to be the official Religion of Rome.
The change toward Christianity
The Roman government changed its policy toward Christians because tolerance increased and the religion.
The Middle Ages
This time happened after the fall Roman Empire.
Big Idea #1: Power of the Church
1.Q: What is an illuminated manuscript?
A: A book of drawings that were called illuminations. The gold makes the pages illuminated.

2. Q: What were standards of beauty for a medieval cathedral?
A: The height and light.

3. Q: Who founded the first community of monks and wrote the rules for monks?
A: St. Benedict Arnold.

4. Q: Who were the female counterparts to the monks?
A: The nuns.

5. Q: What feature of the monastery made it a center of learning?
A: The scriptorium.

6. Q: What two features of Gothic feature was demonstrated in the construction of the cathedrals?
A: Gargoyles and the flying buttress.

7. Q: What city did the first Crusade take place?
A: Jerusalem.

8. Q: Who were the two opponents who fought against each in the Crusades?
A: The Christians and the Muslims.

9. Q: What was the main goal of the crusades?
A: To get back their holy land from the Muslims.

10.Q: Who won the first crusade, second and third?
A: First: Christians
Second: Muslims
Third: Muslims

11. Q: What promise did the pope made for the people who wanted to join the Crusades?
A: Salvation.

12. Q: What was one positive effect of the Crusades?
A: They brought goods and ideas to stimulate the culture and economy.

Big Idea #2: Growth of Cities & Towns
1. Q: What was one advantage of the location of Constantinople?
A: It was where Europe and Asia meet.

2. Q: How did people live in Constantinople?
A: They had a luxurious life.

3. Q: How did the people of the Constantinople learn to make silk?
A: Smuggled silkworms out of China.

4. Q: What two factors led to the growth of cities and towns in the Middle Ages?
A: 1. Trade
2. Population

5. Q: What were Medieval Towns like?
A: Narrow streets, it was unsanitary, crowded, noisy, walls for protection.

6. Q: How are the houses like in these towns?
A: Very gloomy, dark, airless, stuffy, narrow and small.

7. Q: How was the market street like?
A: Very nosy.

8. Q: Who and what kept Medieval towns “humming?”
A: Who: Merchants.
What: Trade.

9. Q: What was the function of the guild?
A: Set quality standards and prices.

10. Q: What was the guild system?
A: 1. Apprentice
2. Journey man
3. Master piece

11. Q: What are symptoms of the Black death?
A: Bad smells, victims, fevers, Purplish- Black swellings, Red saliva from the blood, vomiting and muscle aches.

12. Q: What were some of the remedies people offered?
A: Praying, confessing and atoning for sins, church bells ringing to drive the plague away, the burning of sweet smelling woods and herbs, they made medicines out of gold and pearls, a change in diet, cleaning up the streets, getting people to bathe and isolating.

13. Q: What transmitted the plague?
A: The Fleas from the mice.

14. Q: How did the Black death affect the economy and society?
A: Cities stopped trading with one another, the price of labor and goods rose, workers were scarce, many farms were deserted, no one harvested the crops and the Peasants demanded higher wages.

15. Q: How did the Black death affect the church?
A: Many prayers stopped and people started questioning the power of the church.

Big Idea #3: Legacy of the Middle Ages
1. Q: Who forced King John to sign the Magna Carta?
A: Angry nobles forced the king to sign the document.

2. Q: What was the main purpose of the Magna Carta?
A: The main purpose of the Magna Carta was to limit the king’s power and give the nobles power as well.

3. Q: Why was the Magna Carta important?
A: It expressed that no one is above the law.

4. Q: What was an alchemist?
A: A medieval scientist who attended to make gold from other metals and tries to find find the key to long life.

5. Q: What was the fifth element?
A: The fifth element was a stone that believed that could cure all diseases, changes substances magically and extend life.

6. Q: Why were alchemists considered scientific pioneers?
A: because they began the process of observation and experiment. (the scientific method.)

8. Q: What weapon was introduced by the English the Hundred Years’ War?
A: The Long bow.

9. Q. Which two countries were fighting against each other in the Hundred Years’ War?
A: England and France.

Overview of the Middle Ages
1. Q: Who/What preserved Roman culture after the fall of the Western Roman Empire?
A: The Christian Church.

2. Q: Why did feudalism develop?
A: Because they want protection.

3. Q: What was a manor?
A: The estate of a feudal lord.

4. Q: What did the lord get in return for giving land vassals/knights?
A: Military service.

5. Q: Who were the serfs?
A: Peasants who were not free to leave the manor at they worked.

6. Q: What was already beginning to emerge at the end of the Middle Age?
A: The rebirth of the culture. Also known as the Renaissance.