World History 2- Midterm Review

World History 2- Midterm Review

humanism
an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievement
Erasmus
wrote the Praise of Folly, which poked fun at greedy merchants, heart sick lovers, quarrelsome scholars and pompous priests
ninety-five theses
95 reasons why the catholic church should change, written by Martin Luther
reformation
a movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope’s authority
Henry VIII
king of England who withdrew England from the Roman Catholic Church and created Parliament and the Church of England
Council of Trent
a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers; stopped internal corruption
Edict of Nantes
declaration where the french king promised that Protestants could live in peace in France
Thirty Years War
Protestants vs. Catholics
Hernando Cortez
explored for Spain and conquered the Aztec empire
Francisco Pizzaro
explored for Spain and conquered the Incan Empire
Sir Francis Drake
English explored who was the first to circumnavigate the globe and explore the west part of North America
Line of Demarcation
separated Portuguese territory from Spanish territory
Triangular trade
trade network in between the Americas, Europe, and Africa
Middle Passage
part of the triangular trade from Africa to Americas along which millions of Africans were transported into slavery
Columbian Trade
trade between Americas and Europe
Mercantilism
idea that the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country
European Revolution
european nations competed for overseas markets, colonies and resources
Spanish Armada
spanish military fleet who tried to invade England to punish them for Protestantism, but lost
Louis XIV
most powerful and influential French king, built the Palace of Versailles as a symbol of his power; “I am the State”
Peter the Great
Tsar who westernized Russia and built St. Petersburg as a center of education and culture; one of Russia’s great reformers, help increase tsar’s power
Charles I
English king who wanted absolute power, which led to the English Civil War (lost war and then was executed)
Oliver Cromwell
man who led the supporters of Parliament against the supporters of the king in the English Civil War
Restoration
the period of Charles II’s rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell’s government and being brought into power
Glorious Revolution
the bloodless overthrow of the English king, James II, and his replacement by William and Mary
English Bill of Rights
limited the power of the monarch and increased the power of Parliament, signed by William and Mary
Copernicus
came up with the heliocentric theory (planets revolve around the sun)
Kepler
planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits
Newton
discovered the laws of gravity and laws of motion
Harvey
studied the circulation of blood
Hobbes
believed in a social contract where people create a government by giving up their rights to that government; wrote the Leviathan
Locke
believed people should overthrow their government if they don’t have the natural rights of “life, liberty, and property”
Voltaire
fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of speech and freedom of religion
Montesquieu
believed in the separation of powers, checks and balances; wrote On the Spirit of Laws
Rousseau
believed that a good government was freely formed by the people and guided by the “general will” of society; wrote the Social Contract
Old Regime
the political and social system that existed in France before the French revolution
Louis XVI
king of France during the French Revolution
National Assembly
a French Congress established by representatives of the 3rd Estate to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French People
Bastille
French fortress which imprisoned political prisoners, its attack marked the beginning of the French Revolution
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon
Legitimacy
monarchs brought back to power/ right of a monarch to rule
Liberal
having political or social views favoring reform and progress
radical
favored drastic change
Creoles
in spanish colonies, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents
Mestizo
a person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
Toussaint L’Ouverture
former slave, liberated Haiti from France
Simon Bolivar
creole, liberated Venezuela, Columbia and other areas of South America from Spain
Miguel Hidalgo
priest, liberated Mexico from Spain
Monroe Doctrine
a US policy of opposition to European interference in Latin America, announced by president James Monroe