World History After 1500 Semester 1

What are the characteristics and beliefs of Humanism?
Man is most important and the center of the universe, not God.
It is the midway point between the focus on God and the Scientific Method.
Caused by Secularism, Skepticism, Classicalism, and Individualism and incorporates those values.
Ends the Medieval period and starts the Modern period.
Man above God but not in an anti-Christ way but the Church doesn’t believe in it.
Who is Niccolo Machiavelli?
A humanist author who wrote The Prince and was also a farmer, military engineer, militia captain, and politician.
What is The Prince?
A controversial book by Machiavelli that demonstrates political philosophy and how as a ruler one should want to be feared by his/her people but not hated or loved.
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What is a Renaissance Man?
An individual who incorporates all values of the Renaissance; has skill in reading, writing and understanding; should be well educated in arts, reading, architecture, dance, athletics, and weaponry; he should be well rounded and excel in all areas.
Why is Leonardo da Vinci classified as a Renaissance Man?
He was better than his masters; made scientific and artistic achievements; produced studies on nature, flying machines, and architecture; had very broad interests, didn’t focus on just one thing—covered all aspects of life.
Why was Italy the birthplace of the Renaissance?
People studied the Greek and Roman classics in Italy and brought these ideas to the north.
What were the effects of the printing press?
The printing press allowed for more books to be printed in a short amount of time which caused more people to become literate. Since books were more available and at a cheaper price more people learned so more people then became interested in studying and learning more which caused ideas to spread faster and more efficiently. It also caused new discoveries because of the maps and charts it printed.
List and explain the five values of the Renaissance.
Secularism—not as focused on religion: rejects it and focuses on present life instead of after-life.
Skepticism—everything is doubted and questioned but faith is still evident
Classicalism—ancient Greek and Roman classics are discovered as advanced and should be studied.
Individualism—thinking and providing for oneself and expressing one’s own thoughts as a leader.
Humanism—see above.
List and explain the artistic techniques.
Chiaroscuro—treatment of light and dark parts, see shadows
Perspective—technique using three dimensions on a flat surface
–linear perspective—based on how human eye sees the world-objects closer look larger and opposite
Contrapposto—nonsymmetrical, relaxed stance, more realistic
Realism, triangle shape, real subjects, vanishing points
What was the use of the Vernacular languages?
They were commonly spoken languages that were a popular way of writing in during the Renaissance.
Who were the Patrons of the Arts?
People mostly from Italy who wanted to display the wealth of themselves and their cities. An example would be the Medici family.
Who were subjects of Renaissance art?
Real people such as kings, queens, the royal family, nobles, models, etc.
What were the beliefs and goals of Christian Humanists?
They were of critical of the Christian’s failure to inspire people to live as a Christian so they reformed society and made co-ed education which changed the way people viewed life.
What is Utopia?
It was something Sir Thomas More wrote about and it literally means “no place.” It is an ideal society without greed, corruption, or war.
What were the beliefs of Martin Luther?
All people with faith are equal, salvation occurred only through faith that God’s sacrifice alone could wash away sin, and Bible is the only source of holiness so all church teachings should be based off of it.
–everyone received God directly, everyone can marry, pope isn’t infallible, there are two kingdoms: God and world, no indulgences, wives important, if contrite God will forgive, Bible can be translated, women have rights, the presence of God already exists in the bread/wine.
What is the Ninety-Five Theses?
Luther’s work that stated that the pope’s power to give salvation is denied and that indulgences are unnecessary. It satisfied those wanting to return to simple faith, it appealed to those fighting church abuses, it was an outlet for German resentment against Rome, and it encouraged princes to seek political independence.
Why was the Peace of Augsburg significant?
It granted German territories the right to decide what religion their territory will follow.
How did Martin Luther influence the beliefs of John Calvin?
John Calvin took Luther’s ideas and gave them order. Similar in the way that one doesn’t need God works but Calvin takes faith to more of an extreme.
What is theocracy?
A form of government controlled by religious leaders who act on God’s behalf.
What three activities did the Jesuits focus on?
Opening schools, converting people to Catholicism, and stopping the spread of Protestantism.
How did the Council of Trent respond to the Reformation and what teachings did this council reaffirm?
It wanted to join the Catholics and Protestants but ended up just trying to improve each church. It reaffirmed that the church’s interpretation of the Bible is final, one must have good works and faith to gain salvation, the Bible and Church tradition are equally powerful authority for guiding Christian life, and that indulgences are valid expressions of faith but the false selling of them is bad.
Why did Henry VIII split from the Roman Catholic Church?
He was convinced his wife Catherine of Aragon wouldn’t be able to have a son so he wanted a divorce or to annul his marriage.
What were the causes and reasons for the Thirty Years’ War?
Habsburgs were dominating in Spain and the Holy Roman Empire which made the Bourbon family fear them, the Catholics and Protestants both want complete domination, the economy of Europe collapsed, and the royal houses become insecure and fearful.
What was the purpose of the Edict of Worms?
It declared Luther to be a heretic so nobody in the Holy Roman Empire was allowed to give food or shelter to Luther and it declared that Luther’s books were to be burned.
What is excommunication?
To kick out of the church.
What was the Defenestration of Prague?
The Bohemians threw Ferdinand’s officials out of a window because they were angry at Ferdinand for trying to get rid of Protestantism. It is one of the reasons the Thirty Years’ War starts.
What are indulgences?
Like “tickets to heaven” they were sold to people to shorten their time in purgatory and get them to heaven sooner.
Who is Pope Paul III?
Main reformer of the Catholic Church; he directed the Council of Cardinals to investigate indulgences, approved the Jesuit order, used the Inquisition to seek out heresy, and called the Council of Trent.
What was the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre and why did it happen?
It was a Guise plot that killed 10,000 Huguenots in Paris and it happened because the Guise and Catherine de Medici feared the Huguenots were gaining supremacy during the French religious wars.
What territory did the Habsburgs control?
The Holy Roman Empire, Austria, and Spain.
What were Tokugawa Ieyasu’s feelings about Christian missionaries in Japan?
He did not like Christian missionaries in Japan so he did whatever he could to not bring them in.
What was Japan’s Closed Country Policy?
Other countries were very limited in their trade with Japan—only China, Korea, and the Dutch were able to trade with the Japanese because they restricted it to just what they want. Japanese ships were not allowed to take part in the trade so other ships must come to them.
Why did China reject British trade?
The British refused to acknowledge that they were inferior to the Chinese.
What were the Qing dynasty’s views concerning religious toleration?
People could convert to Christianity as long as there is ancestral worship through sacrifices.
What was the role of the emperor in Japan during the Tokugawa Shogunate?
The emperor was just a figurehead and was equivalent to the shogun.
Who was Qianlong?
The most prosperous Chinese ruler who increased farm production through specialization, improved irrigation, fertilizer, silk, cotton, and tobacco. He helped the economy grow through population increase resulting in laws that only allow for one child and deforestation. He helped society and culture by promoting education which improves literacy, enforces mortality, increases questioning of neighbors and the status of women.
How did the Closed Country Edict control Japanese relations with foreign countries?
The Japanese had limited interactions with other countries and only chose to interact with the countries they wanted to.
Who were the samurai?
Warriors that protect the daimyo from rivals and were rewarded with land. They were governed by the bushido which stated that they must always be ready to fight, work hard, and be loyal to the king.
Who was Zheng He and what were his contributions to exploration in China?
He was an admiral of a Chinese fleet that took seven epic voyages of extreme heroism; he possibly circumnavigated the world and was the first to reach the Americas.
What role did Prince Henry play in Portuguese exploration?
He directed the Portuguese conquest of Ceuta which made him want to divert western African gold trade from Muslim caravans to Portuguese ships. He wanted to win Ethiopian allies against the Turks.
What were the motives for explorations?
Curiosity, trade, Christianity, to find the strength of the moor, to accumulate resources and/or land.
What was the better source of labor: Africans or Native Americans? Why?
Africans were better. They were exposed to Europeans and became immune to their diseases, they had experienced farming, and they were less likely to escape since they were unfamiliar with the land and had nowhere to go.
What was the Middle Passage?
Middle leg of both triangular trades, slaves come from West Africa to the West Indies. It was the shipment of African slaves across the Atlantic during the Atlantic slave trade. It took one month from Africa to Brazil and two months from Africa to the Caribbean and United States. Most slaves were confined within the ship’s hold and mortality rates were as high as 20% for the slaves.
What are the main ideas of Documents 18-20?
18—Portugal’s motives were to spread Christianity, find out the strength of the Moors, to trade, for curiosity purposes, and to gain Christian allies.
19—Spain’s motives were to find an easier and faster route to Asia, accumulate land and/or resources, gain power and influence, and to gain glory.
20—Hakluyt believes England should go to Norumbega because it is an easy convenient trip, a good place to find resources, a religious safe-haven, a source of cheap goods and fertile land, a good place for jobs, and it will stop the Spanish from taking all the new land.
What dispute did the Treaty of Tordesillas settle?
It settled the dispute over the pope’s “bull of demarcation” by moving the border line five hundred miles west which was in favor of the Portuguese.
Francisco Pizarro
He was an illegitimate son of a minor Spanish noble and landholder in Isthmus of Panama. He conquered the Incas with Almargo by luring Atahualpa into a meeting and killed his men then killed him in a ransom. He was assassinated by Almargo and his family.
Jamestown
First permanent settlement in the New World settled by the English.
Ferdinand Magellan
Spanish for Spain. His voyages justified colonization of the Philippines by Spain. He was encouraged by Balboa, he sailed from Spain around South America to Philippines but died in a battle on the islands; first circumnavigation and Spanish claim Philippines and prepped way for Cebu settlement.
Vasco de Gama
left Lisbon, rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 93 days, picked up Arab pilot while raiding East African ports who brought them across the Indian to Calicut, India. 27,000 mile voyage four times longer than Columbus’. Pepper and cinnamon brought back returned loses and costs sixty times.
Jacques Cartier
French for France. He explored the St. Lawrence River; claims are the basis for French colonization, duplicated England’s claims to east North America.
Hernando Cortes
Spanish for Spain. He was sent by Spanish officials because they heard of the Aztecs with horses, eleven ships, men, servants, crossbows, muskets and cannons. He destroyed ten of the ships before marching on the capital so men couldn’t turn back. He was able to communicate with the Aztecs through someone who knew Mayan and someone who knew Mayan and Aztec. After the massacre he escaped the city.
How did the Spanish organize their territory in the New World?
They created New Spain which was where the conquered Aztec empire used to be and it consisted of Mexico, Guatemala, islands such as Hispania, and parts of Central and South America. This was organized into two viceroyalties, Mexico and Peru, which were directed by the Council of the Indies and Audencias, and contained Cabildos and Cacquies.
What were the effects of European colonization on the native people in the Americas?
The Native people were being used as slaves so they started to die out from the diseases and harshness of work.
In dealing with inflation, what impact did precious metals have on economies in Europe?
Inflation which is the increase in prices hurts the landlords but ends the gold drain to the east.
What was the role of the Spanish and Portuguese in the slave trade?
They initiated the slave trade but the Portuguese initiate it first. The Portuguese go to the coast, make contact with the African rulers and ask them for slaves.
Who were the pilgrims?
Group of English Protestants who survived at Plymouth and inspired other religious dissenters against Charles I.
What is Divine Right?
Rulers were agents of God and were God’s representatives on Earth so they must be obeyed unquestionably; defined by Jacques Bossuet.
What were the causes of Absolutism?
Religious and territorial conflicts caused fear and uncertainty which caused the armies to increase in size which caused an increase in taxes which caused people to become angry which caused revolts and riots which led to absolutism.
What was the purpose of the Edict of Nantes?
When Henry of Navarre took power in France as Henry VI, this granted the Huguenots civil and religious rights and allowed them to continue holding more than one hundred fortified towns.
What is mercantilism and what are its characteristics?
Mercantilism is an economic system where the government wants to obtain a favorable balance of trade by focusing on the production of goods domestically. In this, the measure of a nation’s power is its wealth so it wanted a favorable balance of trade and an increase in gold and silver (bullionism). Its ultimate goal was self-sufficiency so it was also illegal to trade with other countries and colonies were vital to obtain resources and markets that can’t be found in their country.
Why did Louis XIV build the Palace of Versailles?
He built it to glorify the king which was he.
What caused England to adopt a Constitutional Monarchy as their form of government?
Glorious Revolution which was when absolutism reached its end as a result of the English Civil War.
Why was the English Bill of Rights significant?
It gave powers back to Parliament and it permanently limited the powers of the king.
What is the Restoration? Explain.
It is when the monarch was brought back through Charles II. This period began when Cromwell died and Charles II is to understand he will rule hand in hand with Parliament although he doesn’t want to.
What was the English Civil War?
Parliament goes into war against King Charles I because they were losing their rights. The king seems to be winning until the New Model Army (Parliament’s army) allies with the Scotts and declares Cromwell as their leader. Cromwell is the most powerful leader and he captures and kills Charles I for treason. After the war Cromwell takes over and abolishes the monarchy and creates a republic/commonwealth.
What is Habeas Corpus?
Everyone has the right to be brought before a judge and told what they are accused of.
How did Peter the Great westernize Russia?
He modernizes the army, builds a navy, gets a warm water seaport, reduces the power of landowners and nobles, places heavy taxes for the army, makes a Russian newspaper, makes nobles give up traditional clothing, makes people shave beards, places taxes on almost everything.
Cardinal Mazarin
He carried on the policies of Cardinal Richelieu and supervised Fronde until his death when Louis XIV could take full power of the throne.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Comptroller of finance to Louis XIV, he installed mercantilism at the expense of Dutch overseas commerce, he create a tariff system and trade prohibitions, he improved internal transportation, and he chartered overseas trading companies and gave them monopolies, all while trying to end capitalism.
Oliver Cromwell
The most powerful person on Parliament’s side in the English Civil War and dominated England after Charles I was killed.
What was the War of Spanish Succession?
Charles II of Spain died with no heir to the throne but he promised the throne to Louis XIV’s grandson, Philip. England, Portugal, and Austria join forces to stop Philip from getting the throne because this would result in the uniting of Spanish and French thrones. The war lasts for 13-14 years and ends with the Treaty of Utrecht where Philip can remain king but cannot unite with France.
What is St. Petersburg?
Peter the Great’s port on the Baltic Sea gained from an attack on Sweden in his war with the Turks. This became Peter’s capital city for Russia.
What is The Petition of Right?
It was a law that secured parliamentary approval of taxes, abolished arbitrary imprisonment, ended the quartering of soldiers with citizens, and prohibited material law in peacetime.
Who is Frederick II (Frederick the Great)?
He was a ruler of Prussia who becomes a brilliant administrator and the greatest soldier of his time. Although he was against his father (Frederick William I)’s ways at first, he ends up using them and this causes him to get Prussia to a state of perfect function.
What was the relationship like between the Absolute monarchs and the nobles?
The absolute monarchs did what they could to limit the power of the nobles and the nobles did what they could to obtain power.
Who was Louis XIV, the “Sun King”?
“Grand Monarch,” king of France who learned from Richelieu, Mazarin, and the Fronde and believed that all power resides in the authority of the king; he also claimed authority over French church and religion, he revoked the Edict of Nantes, and was involved in struggle with Rome over church revenues. He declared himself like the sun by which he was the center of France just as the sun the center of the universe. He moved his residence to Versailles, and he had a contrast between local and central functions.
Who was Frederick William the Great Elector?
He was a ruler of Prussia who won eastern Pomerania and went on to win central control in Brandenburg, Prussia, and Cleves.
What were the justifications for Absolutism?
People want order, security, and improved social and political conditions after the wars of religion. Divine Right and Leviathan were two other justifications for absolutism.
Who is Muhammad?
He is the man who founded the Islamic religion. He marries a woman Khadija who encourages him to pray so when he does the angel Gabriel visits him and tells him to preach and so he does but he preaches that there is only one God. People think he’s crazy but they tolerate him because they respect his wife. When his wife does he is kicked out of Mecca and goes to Yathrib which is known as hejira. In Yathrib people welcome him and he converts people to his religion and changes the name of the city to Medina. He then goes back to Mecca, captures it, and makes it a shrine to the one god.
Why did the Ottoman and Safavid Empires decline?
The leaders kill of their most able heirs so people that have no idea what they are doing get the throne and cause the decline of the empire.
Where was the Ottoman Empire located?
Turkey
Where was the Safavid Empire located?
Iran
Where was the Mughal Empire located?
India
What is the Taj Mahal?
It is a memorial and tomb for Shah Jahan of the Mughal Empire’s wife who died giving birth to her fifteenth kid. His two passions were his wife and architecture so he combined the two in this.
Who is Suleiman I?
The Lawgiver/The Magnificent, he was the most feared ruler and of the Ottoman Empire during the Renaissance; his greatest achievement was his social structure in which everyone has a place; he created a new law code to deal with criminal and civil matters; and he created pashas, sipiahas, and the kul/devshirme system in which conquered boys are drafted, converted to Islam, and put in janissaries (elite military forces) where they could increase their status.
Who is Akbar?
Ruler of the Mughal Empire who took power at age 14; increased the strength of his army through artillery; culturally blended his empire; tolerated non-Muslims by having two Hindu wives, abolishing the tax of Hindus and other non-Muslims, and forbid Hindu sati (burning self on husband’s funeral pyre); he taxed fair and affordable based on crop production; he granted land to bureaucracy; and he allowed multiple languages such as Persian, Hindu, and Urdu.
Who is Shah Abbas?
He led the golden age of the Safavid Empire. He built Isfahan as the capital; he made his empire wealthy and secure; he limited the military to two royal armies; he made roads, bridges, irrigation, agriculture, and trade; he allied with England to force out the Portuguese; he bypassed the Ottoman Empire’s trade through silk; and he punished corruption, promoted loyal officers, hired foreigners as officials, and promoted religious toleration through the government.
What were the results of the Scientific Revolution?
Astronomers question the geocentric theory and come up with the heliocentric theory that goes against Church teaching. The telescope and gravity are discovered.
What were the beliefs of the Scientific Revolution?
Geocentric and heliocentric theories, gravity, nothing is true until proven, and motion.
What was the Heliocentric Theory?
The sun is the center of the universe.
What were the major discoveries of Isaac Newton?
Theory of motion, law of gravitational energy, and every object attracts the other but it differs because of distance.
Galileo Galilei
Scientist who creates the telescope, studies and writes about the sky, and believes the heliocentric theory.
Rene Descartes
Scientist who was the ultimate skeptic: the only thing he truly believed in is that he exists.
Voltaire
Philosopher who was the leader of French Enlightenment and was against the practices of Christianity but still believed in God. He wrote A Plea for Tolerance and Reason in which he talks about his belief in equality for all people through religion; he believed no one should be persecuted for his/her beliefs.
John Locke
Philosopher who believed that humans were good people and should not be deprived of any rights. He thought experience was the source of knowledge and that all religions should be tolerated. He believed the government should rule hand in hand with the people so everything must be for the good of the people. He wrote the Second Treatise on Government and his works were the foundation for the American Declaration of Independence and Constitution.
Thomas Hobbes
Philosopher whose witness of the English Civil War made him believe fully in Absolutism. He viewed government as absolute power not under God. He believed that society would collapse if the monarch is not in supreme power and completely obeyed. He viewed people as completely equal and those who had the same interest we enemies trying to survive. He expressed these views in his book, Leviathan.
Baron de Montesquieu
Philosopher who wrote Spirit of the Laws in Paris in which he states his views on government. He said government was either republic, monarchial, or despotic. A republic needed suffrage; a monarchy needed one supreme ruler that needed influence of the people and the nobles; and a despotic was where no government wanted to end up because it was like an absolute monarch.
Nicolas Copernicus
Scientist who realized the geocentric theory was wrong and believed that the sun is at the center (heliocentric theory) but nobody believed him.

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