World History AP- World Religions

The influence of Polytheism
It was at the center of art and architecture in ancient civilizations: temples and pyramids were built for the gods, for example. It also created rigid social structures with a priest class.
Confucianism
developed specifically for Chinese culture; Confucius wrote the Analects; focused on relationships between people; this focus created distinctive Chinese society
The appeal of Confucianism
was a social and political philosophy, not a religion. It was therefore compatible with other religions, having broader influence.
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Why Confucianism did not spread from China
It is developed specifically for Chinese culture
Words associated with Confucianism
junzi (ideal individuals), ren (humanity), li (respect), xiao (filial piety)
Daoism
founded by Lao-tzu; stresses simple, passive life in harmony with nature; served as a counterbalance to Confucian activism; promoted scientific discoveries because of nature
Legalism
practiced during Qin Dynasty, thought people were bad and needed harsh laws and government, inadvertently caused wider acceptance of Confucianism and Daoism through oppression
Hinduism
began with Aryan invaders, Vedas and Upanishads are sacred texts, is heavily intertwined with caste system, spawned Buddhism
Why Hinduism did not spread from India
It is tightly intertwined with Indian culture
Words associated with Hinduism
dharma (rules of each caste), moksha (highest state of being, end of reincarnation), Brahma (creator god), Vishnu (preserver god), Shiva (destroyer god)
Buddhism
practiced in Eastern civilizations, founded by Hindu prince Siddhartha Gautama (563 to 483 BCE), split into Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism with his death
Influence of Buddhism
rejected caste system; can apply to most anyone, anywhere because it is not attached to a social structure
Words associated with Buddhism
Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, nirvana (perfect state of peace and harmony)
Judaism
practiced by Hebrews, first monotheistic faith, sacred text is the Torah
Christianity
based around teachings of Jesus of Nazareth; sacred text is the Bible; actively try and convert people
Influence of Christianity
It appealed to lower classes and women because it promised eternal life; it profoundly affected world developments following Constantine’s embracing of the religion

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