World History Ch 10 Test

World History Ch 10 Test

Allah
Arabic world for God
Allah
________ means either God or the belief in one god.
Gabriel
Muslims believe that Allah sent the angel _____________ to Muhammad so that he would convince others that Allah was the only God.
Muhammad
A prophet born into a powerful Meccan family who took great interest in religion. He was spoken to by the angel Gabriel.
Muhammad
After receiving a revelation from Allah through the angel Gabriel, ______________ began preaching.
Three teachings of Muhammad
Allah is the only god, all other gods must be abandoned, I am the last prophet.
Hijrah
Muhammad’s journey from Mecca to Yathren (Medina).
Ka’aba
A simple house of worship built by Abraham for monotheism. Believers in polytheism filled it with idols, so when Muhammad returned to Mecca from Medina, he destroyed all the idols inside.
Islam
A monotheistic religion that developed in Arabia in the seventh century AD
Islam
“Submission to the will of Allah”
Islam
The world’s fastest growing major religion.
Muslim
A follower of Islam
Muslim
“one who has submitted”
Hijrah
Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) in AD 622
Hijrah
By moving from Mecca to Yathirb and making the ________________, Muhammad attracted many followers and displayed his qualities of a great political, religious, and military leader.
Qur’an
The holy book of Islam
Qur’an
A book guiding the day to day life of Muslams. It spread the Arabic language because it was written in Arabic.
Mosque
Islamic place of worship.
Hajj
A pilgramage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims.
Hajj
The _______________ is one of the five pillars of Islamic faith and it involves a journey to Mecca. It symbolizes Muhammad’s return to Mecca and his spreading of monotheism.
Sunna
an Islamic model for living, this is based on the life and teachings of Muhammad.
Sunna
The ____________ allowed Muslims to apply the will of Allah to their daily lives.
Shari’a
A body of law governing the lives of Muslims. The combination of Qur’an and Sunna.
Shari’a
This regulates the family life, moral conduct, business, and community of Muslims.
Caliph
A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim govenment.
Caliph
“successor” or “deputy”
Caliphs
The first four “rightly-guided” ______________ used military force to reassert the authority of Muhammad’s successors. The last three expanded the Muslim empire to be 6000 miles across.
Umayyads
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim empire from 661-750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.
Umayyads
This dynasty moved the capital to Damascus (in Syria).
Umayyads
This dynasty surrounded itself in wealth which made them “too concerned with worldly affairs” and caused them to “lose touch with their religion”.
Shi’a
The branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad.
Shi’a
“the party of Ali”
Shi’a
This group of Muslims openly resisted the Umayyad rule and believed that the caliph must be a relative of Muhammad.
Sunni
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad.
Sunni
“followers of Muhammad’s example”
Sunni
This group believed that the Umayyads had lost touch with Islam by becoming too involved in worldly affairs.
Sufi
A muslim who seeks to achieve direct contact with God through mystical means.
Sufi
This group pursues a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path.
Sufi
This group keeps Muslim focused on the Qur’an and tradition while also serving as missionaries to newly conquered lands.
Abbasids
A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750-1258. They came to power by murdering the Umayyads.
Abbasids
This grouped moved the capital to Baghdad and consolidated power in former Persian lands.
Abbasids
This group developed a strong bureaucracy, treasury, chancery, special department, and diplomacy.
al-Andalus
A Muslim-ruled region in what is now Spain. It was established in the eighth century AD.
Tariq
The leader of the Berbers who advanced north to Paris before being halted at the Battle of Tours.
Fatimid
A member of a Muslim dynasty that traced its ancestry to Muhammad’s daughter Fatima and built an empire in North Africa, Arabia, and Syria.
House of Wisdom
A center of learning established in Baghdad.
House of Wisdom
This library, academy, and translation center preserved the European scholarship in danger after the fall of Rome.
Calligraphy
Art of beautiful handwriting.
Three continents of Arabian Peninsula
Africa, Europe, and Asia
Bedouins
Nomads who provide security and support for people
Courage and loyalty
Values of Islamic Life
Ka’aba
A simple house of worship built by Abraham for Monotheism.
Mecca
Muhammad’s birth place
Allah is the only God, All other Gods must be abandoned
Muhammad’s two teachings
Medina
“city of the prophet”
Muhammad’s declaration
truth has come and falsehood has vanished
Revelations from GOd, First Preaching, Hijrah to Yathren (Medina), Return to Mecca
Four major events of Muhammad’s life
One God, Judgement Day, Abraham
3 beliefs shared by Judaism, Christianity and Islam
Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, Pilgrimage
Fiver Pillars of Islamic Faith
Islamic Sources of Authority
Allah, Qur’an, Sunna
Qur’an and Muhammad’s Actions
What did the “rightly guided” caliphs use as guides to leadership?
Rightly Guided caliphs
Mobile Army, control of Arabia, conquered Syria and Egypt, and supported military forces.
Allah’s support, well-disciplined army, weakness in empire north of Arabia
Factors for the “Rightly Guided” Caliphs’ success
Uthman and Ali
The murder of these two people ended the elective system of choosing a caliph.
Umayyads
This dynasty was the first to make a hereditary system of rule. They also moved the capital to Damascus and abandoned the simple life of previous caliphs.
Umayyads
Being too concerned with worldly affairs and losing touch with religion led to the downfall of this dynasty.
Abbasids
This dynasty murdered the Umayyads in 750.
Abbasids
This dynasty moved the capital to Baghdad and developed a strong: bureaucracy, treasury, chancery, special department, and diplomacy.
Abbasids
Trouble in keeping political control which led to independent states caused this dynasty’s downfall.
Shi’a
Believe that the caliph must be a descendant of Muhammad
Sunni
This group of people believed that the Umayyads had lost touch with their religion because of their concern for worldly affairs.
Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean
The two major sea-trading zones that linked the Muslim Empire into a world system of trade by sea.
Arabic
The language used for trade from Muslim merchants
Abbasid dinar
Currency used for Muslim transactions.
Sakks
Letters of credits given my Muslim money changers to encourage the flow of trade.
Sakk
Modern day check
People of the Book
Christians and Jews were considered _______________________
Poll Tax
A tax paid by Christians and Jews in exchange for exemption from military duties.
Damascus
Leading city of Muslim Scholarship
Damas
Fine clothing in Damascus
Steel Swords and armor
the second reason for Damascus’ popularity
Cordoba
Umayyad capital
Cairo
Fatimid Capital
Baghdad
Abbasid Capital
Tigris
Caliph al-Mansur chose Baghdad to be on the west bank of this river.
Circular
This city had 3 protective walls in this shape
Palace and Mosque
These two things were in the inner circle of Baghdad
Upper Class
Muslims at birth
Second class
Converts to Islam, paid a higher tax
Third Class
Protected People
Fourth Class
Slaves, prisoners of war, and non-muslims.
European Women
Muslim women had about the same rights of ___________________ women of the same time.
widows and orphans
The qur’an provided for care of
Divorce
the qur’an allowed
Inheritance
the qur’an protected woman’s share of
Scholarship
Curiousity, quest for truth, need of qualified physicians, calculating prayer times, and direction to Mecca created a need for
Greek, Persian, Indian
The three languages translated at the House of Wisdom
Al-Razi
A great physician
Comprehensive Book
Al-Razi’s book that had Greek, Syrian, Arabic, and Indian sources
Treatise on Smallpox and Measles
Al-Razi’s second book
Observation and experimentation
One of the major advances of the Muslims was the reliance on scientific _____________________-
Math Solutions
the other main muslim advancement was finding ______________ to aid problems
Knowledge
Believed math was the basis of
Al-Khwarizmi
Developed algebra
Alhazon
Created Optics book and developed the theory that rays pass from objects to yes.
Ibn Rushd
Averroes of Cordoba who harmonized Aristotle and Plato’s views with Islam
Maimonides
Moses Ben Haimon, a jewish physician and philosopher who was born in Cordob
The Guide of the Perplex
Book made by Maimonides blending philosophy, religions, and science
Bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality
Four values of Literature
Thousand and One Nights
Fairy tales, parables, and legends.
Ottoman, Safarid, and Mughal
Three future empires.