World History Ch. 13

World History Ch. 13

Motives for Exploration
1. search for new trade routes
2. desire for gold
3. desire for adventure & glory
4. religious concerns
Marco Polo
-Italians had monopoly
on trade routes leading to Orient
-son of Venetian migrant
-author of influential book
that spurred interest in discovery
-served in Court of Kublai Khan
-Italian
-journeyed 4 years to get to China
-Ottoman Turks came to power
in Middle East in 1400s
& disrupted European trade
Prestor John
-fabled African king
-desired to assist Europeans
in fight against the Muslims
Tools for Exploration
1. Maps: relied on reports
of the traders & fisherman
for early maps
2. Instruments: compass
3. Latitude: (distance an object is
from equator)
latitudinal instruments–
astrolabe, quadrants, and
cross-staff
Caravel
-superior to ships built before 1400
because it had
triangular & square sails
-light, fast vessel that was popular
among early explorers
-large sails for power
-small, triangle sails
provided maneuverability
Prince Henry
-established navigation school
-greatest figure
in history of exploration
-principal circumnavigation of Africa
Bartolomeu Dias
first man to round
the southern tip of Africa
Vasco da Gama
his expedition
around Cape of Good Hope to India gave Portugal a route for spice trade with India
Christopher Columbus
-discovered the New World
while searching for India
-discovered West Indies
-sailed under sponsorship
of Ferdinand & Isabella
The Naming of America
Amerigo Vespucci was
the first European
to explore South America
Line of Demarcation
-line running north & south
that divided the world
between Portugal & Spain
-Portugal & Spain
divided world between themselves
-purpose: to keep Spain & Portugal
from fighting
over new territories
-Portugal claimed Brazil;
official language was Portuguese
Ferdinand Magellan
-Crew accomplished
first circumnavigation of the world
-first explorer to round the tip
of South America
-proved by Magellans’s voyage:
one great body of water
covers the earth
-Columbus’s discoveries were not as near to Asia as he hoped
Circumnavigation
trip around the earth
Mayan Civilization
-built highly advanced
Indian civilization that flourished
in the Yucatan Peninsula
in the 4th-10th centuries
-noted for artistic & intellectual
achievements
-only remnants of this once great Indian civilization were found
by the Spanish
Aztecs
founded walled city of Tenochtitlan Central Mexico
Incas
civilization based in Peru
Conquistadors
-main advantage over natives
of New World was
his horse & firearms
-name for Spanish conquerer
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
first European to view Pacific Ocean
Hernando Cortes
-defeated Aztecs
& destroyed their capital
-considered the greatest conquistador
Montezuma
leader of Aztecs
Viceroys
appointed by Spanish king
to oversee affairs in New World
Francisco Pizarro
-conquered the Inca Empire
-founded city of Lima
Atahualpa
Inca ruler who was held for ransom by Pizarro
Bartolome de Las Casas
-Roman Catholic friar
-opposed cruel treatment
of Indians by fellow Spaniards
in New World
The Legend of El Dorado
city rich in gold
Hernando de Soto
-discovered Mississippi River
-Explored Southeastern U.S.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
-explored southwestern section
of North America
-searched for 7 cities of Cibola
Jacques Cartier
-first great French explorer
in New World
-Founder of Montreal
Samuel de Champlain
-Father of New France
-Founder of Quebec
Jacques Marquette
-French explorer/Jesuit missionary
-explored Mississippi River
by canoe to Arkansas
with Louis Joliet
Henry Hudson
-Englishman hired by the Dutch
to explore for a shorter route
to the East

-explored the northeastern coast
of America in his ship Half Moon

-entered the Hudson River and
gave Dutch a claim
to the region near Albany, New York

-Dutch founded
city of New Amsterdam
which is now New York City

John Cabot
-Italian sailor hired by English
to lead the first English expedition
to North America

-the first European after the Vikings to set foot in North America

-paved the way for the founding
of English colonies
in North America a century later

John Smith
Leader of the first permanent English settlement in North America named Jamestown
which was founded in 1607
Pedro Cabral
Portuguese leader
that established a trading post
in India
Affonso de Albuquerque
-named the viceroy
of Portuguese holdings in the East

-discouraged cruelty to the natives

-set up trading posts and plantations along the trade routes
which began a vast commercial empire for the Portuguese

Francis Xavier
-Jesiut missionary welcomed
by the Japanese
Commercial Revolution
changes in Europe’s
business thinking and practice during the 15th & 16th centuries
Mercantilism
-dominant economic policy
of most European nations
during the Age of Exploration

-believed the wealth of colonies should benefit the mother country

Capitalism
-economic system designed
to create wealth

-believed in using wealth
to create more wealth

Companies
organization of investors
who pooled their resources
to share gains as well as loses
Joint-stock Company
People invested money in a company. In return, they were issued stock certificates showing the amount of money they had invested.
Capital
-supply of money
-money from investors
became part of this
-used to finance business ventures
Dividends
profits given to the
stockholders (investors)
of a joint-stock company
Prospectus
details of a
proposed business venture
Underwriter
-one who wrote his name below the prospectus, pledging to help share the cost of the enterprise

-today we use the word
to describe an insurance company