World History Chapter 1 Test

Old Stone Age
Paleolithic; people were nomads, used tools, fire, made cave paintings
New Stone Age
Neolithic; began when people learned to farm (systematic agriculture) and domesticated animals, more sophisticated tools. Farming brought steady food supply, settled villages, involved more work than nomadic life. (Neolithic Revolution)
Prehistory
the time before writing
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Australopithecus
first hominid; they were nomads (wandered in search of food and used very primitive tools)
Cro-Magnons
first to be found in Europe, had ax, spear throwder, better hunting methods, more sophisticated culture, and they have a skelton like ours
Egyptians
optimistic outlook on geography, natives of Egypt
Nile River
source of water, irrigation, transportation; flood predictably, The Giver of Life
Hatshepsut
1st female ruler of Egypt
Akhenaton
tried to change Egypt’s religion to monotheism, said Aton was the 1 true God; orignal name was Amenhotep
Mesopotamia
Fertile Crescent
arc shaped piece of land from Mediterranean Sea to Persian Gulf
Assyrians
Civiization was known for its cruel treatment of conquered peoples
Hittites
First civilization to use iron weapons
Hebrews
the first people to be monotheistic
Mandate of Heaven
royal authority is given by the gods; unjust ruler loses the right to rule and will be replacedby another ruler (first used by Zhou)
Teachings of Hinduism
Teachings of Buddhism
Teachings of Confucius
Laozi
Technology
Varna
social classes
Culture
Civilization
Dynasty
a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family
Aryans
nomadie people who moved south into the plains of northern India. They began settling in the Indus River Valley, and soon a new civilization emerged based on Aryan culture and institutions
Kushites
Persians
conquered a large empire and were tolerant of conquered peoples’ way of life, believed in a God named Zoroaster and that here was a struggle in the universe between good and evil supreme beings
Phoenicians
developed a simplified alphabet which became the basis for all Greek and all western alphabets, nicknamed the “carriers of civilization”
Babylonians
led by Hammurabi, who made the first written code of laws (code of laws was based on the principle “an eye for an eye”
Lydians
first civilization to use coins
Sumerians
developed a system of writing called cuneiform, inventors of the ewagon wheel, arch, potter’s wheel and sundial, had a number system based on 60 and a 12 month calendar, created 12 city-states (each with its own priest/king
Cuneiform
“wedge-shaped”, system of writing using a reed stylus, that made wedge shaped impression on clay tablets, which were then baked and dried in the sun
Yin
cool, dark, female
Yang
warm, light, male

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