World History Chapter 10

World History Chapter 10

Carruca
a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare
Manor
an agricultural estate that a lord ran and peasants worked
Serf
peasants legally bound to the land
Money economy
an economic system based on money, rather than barter
Commercial capitalism
an economic system in which people invested in trade and goods for profit
Bourgeoisie
middle-class, typically merchants and artisans
Patrician
members of the wealthiest and most powerful families
Guild
business associations for craftspeople
Apprentice
a boy, usually around the age of 10, who served a craftsman in order to learn a trade
Masterpiece
a finished piece (such as a painting or sculpture) by which other members of a guild could determine whether the person was qualified to join the guild
Lay Investiture
Practice in which kings and rulers gave bishops the symbols of their office
Interdict
a decree by the Pope that forbids priests from giving the sacraments of the Church to a certain group of condemned people
Sacrament
a Christian rite or ritual. Catholics recognize 7 sacraments; Protestants believe in only 2
Heresy
a belief or opinion that goes against basic Christian beliefs (doctrines)
Relic
bones or objects of Catholic saints that Catholics consider worthy of veneration (worship) because they provide link between the earthly world and God
Theology
the study of religion and God
Scholasticism
a philosophical system that sought to reconcile faith and reason
Vernacular
the language of everyday speech in a particular region
Anti-Semitism
hostility to the Jews
Taille
an annual direct tax usually on land or property