World History: Chapter 13 Ancient Civilizations of the Americas

Which of these statements is the best summary of the textbook authors’ apparent attitude toward human sacrifice by the Aztecs?
A) It seemed to serve religious and political purposes, but it was also horrific and probably contributed to the fall of the Aztecs.
B) It was the only thing that brought the Aztecs to power and kept them in control of their subjects.
C) It created useful fear among the populace, but it would undoubtedly have led to the overthrow of the Aztecs regardless of other historical forces.
D) It was completely disgusting and incomprehensible.
A) It seemed to serve religious and political purposes, but it was also horrific and probably contributed to the fall of the Aztecs.
The first true city-state of Mesoamerica was probably
A) Teotihuacán
B) Monte Alban
C) San Lorenzo
D) Cuicuilco
A) Teotihuacán
According to the Mayan creation myth, the Popul Vuh, the world was created by
A) the will and the words of the plumed serpent.
B) the forces of volcanoes and earthquakes from the sun god.
C) the shifting chaos of the primordial soup.
D) the flood of the begetters of the water.
A) the will and the words of the plumed serpent.
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The Incas ruled their empire using all of the following methods except
A) practicing large scale human sacrifice.
B) employing people in full-time state service.
C) providing lavish ritual entertainment.
D) relying on various forms of labor taxation.
A) practicing large scale human sacrifice.
The Maya civilization was composed of cities that
A) did not serve as religious centers.
B) competed for dominance.
C) were subservient to one large center
D) were cosmopolitan with many merchants from overseas.
B) competed for dominance.
Mesoamerica extends from
A) North America to Mexico.
B) Chile north to Panama.
C) Central America to Brazil.
D) central Mexico into Central America.
D) central Mexico into Central America.
The people of the Americas most likely never developed the wheel because they
A) were nomadic hunter-gatherers.
B) had no ready access to wood and iron.
C) had no large draft animals.
D) were inferior engineers.
C) had no large draft animals.
The Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacán seems to have been
A) disdained by the Aztecs.
B) erected by indigenous peoples in honor of Mexican independence.
C) appropriated by numerous cultures.
D) an example of a local response to the introduction of Christianity.
C) appropriated by numerous cultures.
Based on Map 13-2, the Aztec and Incan Empires most likely did not come into direct conflict because
A) they shared common leadership.
B) they were separated by a large area of difficult terrain.
C) they were more concerned with religion than warfare.
D) they maintained a close military alliance.
B) they were separated by a large area of difficult terrain.
The best known Olmec works of art are
A) clay pottery.
B) pyramids.
C) massive stone heads.
D) obsidian statues.
C) massive stone heads.
The Maya were primarily located in the
A) central Mexican plains.
B) Andes mountains.
C) Yucatan rain forests.
D) Brazilian rain forests.
C) Yucatan rain forests.
Metallurgy was practiced from a relatively early period by
A) Mesoamerican civilizations.
B) Merovingian civilizations.
C) Andean civilizations.
D) Moorish civilizations.
C) Andean civilizations.
The capitol of the Aztec Empire was
A) Teotihuacán.
B) Chavín.
C) Tenochtitlán.
D) Cuzco.
C) Tenochtitlán.
Teotihuacán’s influence waned starting around 500 C.E. because of
A) an invasion by the Aztecs.
B) a massive fire and disease.
C) factors that are still poorly understood.
D) the Spanish presence in the region.
C) factors that are still poorly understood.
Which statement is most accurate about how urban life in the Classic period of Mesoamerica compared with that of Europe north of the Alps during the same period?
A) Urban life in Mesoamerica was very similar to that of Europe.
B) Mesoamerican urban life involved more people and a more sophisticated culture.
C) Cities in Mesoamerica were often larger than those of Europe, with strictly secular ruling authorities at their centers.
D) Unlike with European cities, urban life in Mesoamerica was free from the stresses of warfare.
B) Mesoamerican urban life involved more people and a more sophisticated culture.
Though the purpose of the Nazca geoglyphs is a matter of speculation, they were most likely used as
A) tombs.
B) sacred paths.
C) airstrips.
D) altars.
B) sacred paths.
Before the Aztec Empire coalesced, the prior inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico viewed the Aztecs as
A) gods.
B) strong laborers.
C) possessors of mysterious technologies.
D) good soldiers.
D) good soldiers.
Difficulties confront scholars trying to understand the ancient civilizations of the Americas because
A) the writing systems have never been deciphered.
B) Mesoamerican civilizations never developed writing.
C) Andean writing displays a pro-Spanish bias.
D) Andean civilizations never developed writing.
D) Andean civilizations never developed writing.
The Mesoamerican calendar is based on
A) two interlocking solar cycles.
B) All of these answers are correct.
C) a century of 35 years.
D) a lunar year of 260 days.
A) two interlocking solar cycles.
Which of the following is the correct chronological order for Andean civilizations?
A) Moche, Chimu, Inca, Chavín de Huantar
B) Chavín de Huantar, Chimu, Moche, Inca
C) Chavín de Huantar, Moche, Chimu, Inca
D) Chimu, Moche, Chavín de Huantar, Inca
C) Chavín de Huantar, Moche, Chimu, Inca
One of the main purposes for the Aztecs’ frequent wars was to
A) gain control of the trade routes to the U.S. Southwest.
B) give their troops training.
C) provide distraction for the rebellious lower classes.
D) get prisoners to use in religious sacrifices.
D) get prisoners to use in religious sacrifices.
Which of the following is the correct chronological order for civilizations in central Mexico?
A) Toltec, Teotihuacán, Aztec
B) Teotihuacán, Toltec, Aztec
C) Toltec, Aztec, Teotihuacán
D) Aztec, Toltec Teotihuacán
B) Teotihuacán, Toltec, Aztec
The Toltec civilization
A) influenced the Aztecs in terms of religion and mythology.
B) held a powerful empire that included the Maya centers.
C) All of these answers are correct.
D) lasted for over a thousand years.
A) influenced the Aztecs in terms of religion and mythology.
More is known about the Aztecs than about other pre-conquest Mesoamerican peoples because
A) pre-conquest Aztecs left extensive written records.
B) no other Mesoamerican peoples created any written record of their own histories.
C) All of these answers are correct.
D) post-conquest administrators and missionaries gathered information from surviving Aztecs.
D) post-conquest administrators and missionaries gathered information from surviving Aztecs.
Christopher Columbus and other early explorers
A) conquered all of South America.
B) believed they had reached the East Indies.
C) destroyed written records of the Maya.
D) were sensitive to Native American cultures.
B) believed they had reached the East Indies.
Europeans were able to conquer the empires of the Americas relatively easily for all of the following reasons except
A) subject peoples within the empires aided European efforts.
B) the peoples of the Americas were especially vulnerable to European diseases.
C) cultures in the Americas were not adapted to their environments.
D) the centralized nature of the Aztec and Incan Empires.
C) cultures in the Americas were not adapted to their environments.
Carved images found at Monte Alban in the Oaxaca Valley suggest
A) None of these answers are correct.
B) that warfare played a role in establishing Monte Alban’s authority.
C) that the practice of ritual human sacrifice evolved very late in the history of Monte Alban.
D) the art of the culture was rather sophisticated.
B) that warfare played a role in establishing Monte Alban’s authority.
Besides the threat of military force, an important factor in the spread of Aztec influence in Mesoamerica was the
A) Aztecs toleration of vice and immorality.
B) Aztec practice of allowing conquered peoples to continue self-rule.
C) activities of Aztec merchants and traders.
D) appeal of the Aztec religion with its promise of eternal life.
B) Aztec practice of allowing conquered peoples to continue self-rule.
More is known about the Aztecs than about other pre-conquest Mesoamerican peoples because
A) All of these answers are correct.
B) post-conquest administrators and missionaries gathered information from surviving Aztecs.
C) pre-conquest Aztecs left extensive written records.
D) no other Mesoamerican peoples created any written record of their own histories.
B) post-conquest administrators and missionaries gathered information from surviving Aztecs
The “classic” or high point of Mesoamerican civilization is associated with
A) the Maya and Teotihuacan between 150 and 900 C.E..
B) the Toltecs between 900 and 1200 C. E..
C) the Aztecs between 1300 and 1500 C.E..
D) the Olmec between 1500 and 400 B.C.E..
A) the Maya and Teotihuacan between 150 and 900 C.E.
The poem by Aztec ruler of Texcoco, Nezahualcoyotl, suggests that the Aztecs saw their relationship with their gods as one
A) that is highly unpredictable.
B) that is intimate, such as that of lovers.
C) that is distant and mysterious.
D) similar to parents and children.
C) that is distant and mysterious.
Scholars generally believe that human beings first came to populate the American continents by immigrating
A) across a natural bridge from Siberia into Alaska.
B) across the Pacific Ocean from Australia to Peru.
C) across the Atlantic Ocean from Europe and Africa to the Caribbean.
D) across the Pacific Ocean from Asia to Mexico.
A) across a natural bridge from Siberia into Alaska.
When Francisco Pizarro arrived in 1532, the Incan Empire was
A) in decline due to widespread corruption in the government.
B) confined to the center of Machu Picchu.
C) not yet free from the control of the Chanca people.
D) one of the largest states in the world.
D) one of the largest states in the world.
Before 1000 B.C.E., the two most influential peoples for the formation of early Mesoamerican culture were
A) the Mixtec and the Zapotec.
B) the Aztec and the Maya.
C) the Maya and the Olmec.
D) the Zapotec and the Aztec.
C) the Maya and the Olmec.
The main Maya centers were located at
A) Palenque and Teotihuacán.
B) Tikal and Chichén Itzá.
C) Yax Kin.
D) Cacau and Cuzco.
B) Tikal and Chichén Itzá.
The name of modern-day Mexico comes from the term used by which of the following people to refer to themselves?
A) Aztec
B) Toltec
C) Tlascala
D) Inca
A) Aztec
The text’s account of the Mesoamerican ball game
A) uses it as a window into child-rearing and educational practices.
B) presents competing interpretations of the game’s rules.
C) relies on archeological evidence.
D) emphasizes that the Spaniards were disgusted by it.
C) relies on archeological evidence.
The monumental architecture at San Lorenzo suggests that Olmec society
A) was monotheistic.
B) was dominated by an elite class of ruler-priests.
C) All of these answers are correct.
D) maintained social equality between the sexes.
B) was dominated by an elite class of ruler-priests.
Which of the following characterized Maya civilization?
A) Maya cities were not really cities but empty ceremonial centers.
B) Maya inscriptions were concerned entirely with astronomical and calendrical observations.
C) Scattered Maya farming communities surrounded the cities.
D) None of these answers are correct.
D) None of these answers are correct.
Archeological evidence of early American civilizations
A) can produce a narrative history.
B) was almost completely obliterated by the Spanish conquest.
C) only exists for Mesoamerican and not for Andean civilizations.
D) has significant limitations.
D) has significant limitations.
The staple crops that were domesticated during the archaic period in Mesoamerican history were
A) soy beans and potatoes.
B) wheat and barley.
C) rice and millet.
D) maize and beans.
D) maize and beans.
All of the following were early Andean cultures except
A) Chavín de Huantar.
B) Oaxaca.
C) Moche.
D) Nazca.
B) Oaxaca.
Itzcoatl was important to Aztec civilization because he was
A) the priest who led them out of slavery under the Maya.
B) the ruler who established the Aztec’s imperial ideology.
C) None of these answers are correct.
D) the chief god they worshipped.
B) the ruler who established the Aztec’s imperial ideology.
The peoples of which one of the following cultures did not participate in the practice of human sacrifice?
A) Toltec
B) Moche
C) Aztec
D) None of these answers are correct.
D) None of these answers are correct.
The Aztecs acquired their wealth from
A) earlier Mesoamerican people they conquered.
B) the Indian tribes of North America.
C) theft from the Incas of South America.
D) trade with Chinese merchants and sailors.
A) earlier Mesoamerican people they conquered.

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