WORLD HISTORY- Chapter 13 Review

WORLD HISTORY- Chapter 13 Review

Northman
an inhabitant of Scandinavia; Vikings.
Vikings
Scandinavian pirates who plundered the coasts of Europe from the 8th to 10th centuries. Also traders, farmers, and explorers.
Leif Erickson
viking explorer who reached North America around 1000, before Columbus.
Magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary. Overran northern Italy, never stayed in one place; took captives as slaves.
*Attacked the isolated villages and monasteries.
Danube River
The second-longest river of Europe. It flows from southern Germany east into the Black Sea.
Rollo
-the learder of the Vikings who agreed to defend territories in Western France, in exchange for honor and fealty of the Frankish King.
Charles the Simple
The ruler of Normandy who tried to get the viking Rollo to stop attacking his area by making him a Duke. Obviously, Rollo agreed to do it.
Feudalism
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
Lord
in the middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor.
Fief
a piece of land held under the feudal system.
Vassal
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty.
Knights
warriors who fought on horseback.
Serfs
people who lawfully couldn’t leave the place that they were born.
Manor
the lords estate
tithe
church tax owed to the priest.
Chivalry
a complex set of ideals. knights were required brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle. adopted in the late Middle Ages.
tournament
a sporting competition in which contestants play a series of games to decide the winner. Included jousts and fake sword fights for practice for battle.
Castles
large building built by lords to defend against attacks; first of these were made of wood not stone. They provided security in times of war.
Epic Poetry
poetry celebrating the deeds of some hero. Such as king Arthur or Charlemagne
Troubadours
poet-musicians at the castles and courts in Europe; wrote short verses and songs about the pleasures of life and love; use the vernacular.
The Knights Code
to be chivalrous to his lady and be smart to his word and to war.
Women’s Role in Feudal Society
Women were powerless just as most men were. But men thought of women as inferior beings. Noblewomen had more rights than peasants such as sending knights or having property. But in reality, not even Noblewomen got fair rights.
Clergy
A body of officials who perform religious services, such as priests, ministers or rabbis.
~The System Goes:
-Pope
-Clergy
-Bishops
-Priest
The Two Swords
-Political and Church Swords
Sacraments
the sacred rituals of the Church.
Canon Law
the Church’s own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals.
Excommunication
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church.
Pope Leo III
Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor.
Holy Roman Empire
Religious divisions due to the Reformation and religious wars in 16th and 17th centuries split Germany among Catholic Churches. Gave way to new empires.
lay investiture
A ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials.
Henry IV
first Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris.
Pope Gregory VII
this leader banned lay investiture.
Concordat of Worms
A compromise between the king and the Pope that started that the church alone could grant a bishop his ring and staff (church power) but his power could be vetoed by the king.
Otto I
king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor.
Fredrick I
Prussian king; strove to maintain highly efficent beaucracy of civil workers; by end of riegn in 1740, doubled army’s size, made it 1 of the best armies in Europe.