World History Chapter 13 Section 4

World History Chapter 13 Section 4

sect
religious group that had broken away from an established church
Henry VIII
the break with the Catholic Church was the work not of religious leaders but of this king; decided to take it over and Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy
Mary Tudor
King Henry VII and Catherine of Aragon’s only one surviving child
Thomas Cranmer
archbishop of the new church who annulled the king’s marriage
Elizabeth
daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; became queen of England at age 25; used her talents to unify England, expand its international power, and encourage a period of great artistic flowering
canonize
recognize as a saint
compromise
acceptable middle ground
Council of Trent
Led by Italian cardinal Carlo Borromeo, the council met on and off for almost 20 years; the council reaffirmed the traditional Catholic views that Protestants had challenged
Ignatius of Loyola
a Spanish knight raised in the crusading tradition; founded a new religious order, the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits. Led by this person, the Jesuits embarked on a crusade to defend and spread the Catholic faith worldwide
Teresa of Avila
symbolized the renewal of feelings of intense faith; she established her own order of nuns; asked by superiors in the Church to reorganize and reform Spanish convents and monasteries; widely honored for her work; canonized; spiritual writings still studied
ghetto
separate quarters of the city
Protestants who rejected infant baptism; some also sought radical change
Who were the Anabaptists?
Henry VIII declared the Church of England independent of Rome when the pope refused to grant him a divorce from Catherine of Aragon
Why was the Church of England established?
Europe remained mainly Catholic; the Church initiated reforms; a new piety was expressed in the arts
What was the outcome of the Catholic Reformation?
because they would not convert to Christianity, and because of widespread religious intolerance
Why were Jews and other people persecuted?
It led to the establishment of Protestantism as an alternative to Catholicism.
How did the Reformation bring about two different religious paths in Europe?
They advocated great social change and very different interpretations of the Bible.
Why were the Anabaptists considered to be radical?
They gave Henry VIII the idea to break with the Church; his influence caused the majority of the English to convert to Protestantism.
How did reforms cause England to become a Protestant country?
Ignatius was seen as the kind of strong and disciplined leader the Church needed to combat the Reformation.
Why might the Catholic Church have found the ideas of Ignatius to be particularly relevant to the Catholic Reformation?
Catholics and Protestants no longer saw each other as social outcasts but continued to view Jewish people as outcasts
Why did witch hunting decline with the end of the religious wars, while persecution of Jews did not?