World history chapter 13 vocabulary words

Petrarch
A florentine who lived in the1300s, was an early Renaissance humanist, poet, and scholar.
Leonardo
Artist who had an endless curiosity that fed a genius for invention.
Michelangelo
Artist who had many talents- he was a sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet
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Raphael
Was widely admired both for his artistic talent and “his sweet and gracious nature”
Baldassare Castigione
Describes the manner, skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have
Niccolò Machiavelli
Wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power.
Humanism
An intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics.
Humanities
Study of subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history, that were taught in Ancient Greece and Rome
Florence
A city in the Tuscany region of northern Italy that was the center of the Italian Renaissance
Patron
A person who provides financial support for the arts
Perspective
Artistic technique used to give paintings and drawings a three-dimensional effect
Flanders
A region that was an important industrial and financial center of Northern Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance
Engraving
Art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints
Vernacular
Everyday language of ordinary people
Utopian
Idealistic or visionary, usually used to describe a perfect society
Johann Gutenberg
Printed the first complete edition of the Christian Bible using a printing press with movable type
Albercht Dürer
One of the first northern artists to be profoundly affected by Renaissance, Italy.
Erasmus
One of the most important scholars of the age.
Thomas More
Pressed for social reform, and Erasmus’s friend
Shakespeare
The towering figure of Renaissance literature, was the English poet and playwrighter.
Indulgences
In the Roman Catholic Church, pardon for sins committed during a person’s lifetime
Wittenberg
A city in northern Germany, where Luther drew up,his 95 theses
Diet
Assembly or legislature
Predestination
Calvinist belief that God long ago determined who would gain salvation
Geneva
Swiss city-state which became a Calvinist theocracy in the 1500s; today a major city in Switzerland
Theocracy
Government run by religious leaders
Martin Luther
The man triggered the revolt was a German monk and professor of theology
Charles V
The new holy Roman empires summoned Luther to the diet at the city of Worms
John Calvin
The other reformer
Sect
A subgroup of a major religious group
Canonize
Recognize a person as a saint
Compromise
An agreement in which each side makes concessions; an acceptable middle group
Council of Trent
A group of Catholic leaders that met between 1545 and 1563 to respond to Protestant challenges and direct the future of the Catholic Church
Ghetto
Separate section of a city where members of a minority group are forced to live
Henry VII
Stood firmly against the Protestant revolt
Mary Tudor
Henry and Catherine of Argon’s only surviving child
Thomas Cranmer
Henry appointed him archbishop of the new church
Elizabeth
Ann Boleyn and Henry’s daughter
Ignatius of Loyola
A spanish knight raised in the crusading tradition
Teresa of Avila
Symbolized this renewal
Heliocentric
Based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Scientific method
Careful, set-by-step process used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis
Hypothesis
An unproved theory accepted for the purposes of explaining certain facts or to provide a basis for further investigation
Gravity
Force that pulls objects in Earth’s sphere to the center of Earth
Calculus
A branch of mathematics in which calculations are made using special symbolic notions; developed by Isaac Newton
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish scholar in 1543 who published “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.”
Tycho Brache
Late 1500s, Danish astronomer, who,provide evidence that supported Copernicus’s theory
Johannes Kepler
Brache’s assistant, a German astronomer and mathematician, he used Brahe’s data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun
Galileo
Assembled an astronomical telescope
Francis Bacon
Englishman giant
René Descartes
Frenchman giant
Robert Boyle
Irish scientist
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and physicist, considered the greatest single influence on theoretical physics until Einstein

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