The selling of official positions in the medieval Roman Catholic Church.
A type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, that created large buildings that focused on light and beauty. They were characterized by flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, high roofs, and stained glass windows.
He was the Pope who called for the first Crusade in 1095. He wanted the European Christian nations to unite to win the Holy Land back from Muslim Turks.
A holy war. Specifically a number of wars in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy land from the Muslims.
The powerful leader of the Muslims during the third crusade who captured Jerusalem in 1187, and signed a truce with King Richard the Lion-Hearted in 1192.
Richard the Lion-Hearted
The English king that was left to lead the crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin during the Third Crusade. He made a truce with Saladin which allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims to visit the city’s holy places.
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslim Moors out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
A church court set up to try people accused of heresy.
It was part of the agricultural revolution, a farming technique that left one field out of three sallow for a year to replenish the soil.
An organization of people in the same craft or trade, who worked together to improve the economic or social conditions of its members.
This included the expansion of trade and new ways of doing buisness that transformed the European economies.
People who were in the merchant class and lived in towns.
The everyday language of people in a region or country.
He was a scholar who argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by sound reasoning. He wrote a book called “Summa Theologicae”, which combined ancient Greek thought with Christian beliefs.
Also called Schoolmen, these men were scholars who gathered at medieval European universities to learn and debate.
William the Conqueror
He was the Duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England (1066), and became the first Norman to be King of England.
The 12th century English king who made important changes to the countries Judicial system by the introduction of the jury system (later to be known as Common Law). He married Eleanor of Aquitaine, gaining him rich French lands, and together they had King Richard the Lion-Hearted, and King John.
Laws that were common to the whole kingdom and were based on past rulings in the courts. This began to replace law codes that varied from place to place.
The Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215. It established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury, and due process of law, to the nobility.
The body of representatives that makes laws for The English nation. It was created by Edward I in order to raise money for his wars in France, and agianst the Welsh, and Scots.
He was the French king who succeeded Louis the Sluggard in 987. He was an undistinguished duke from the middle of France, who started the Capetian Dynasty.
Philip II of France
Also known as Philip Augustus, he was the Capetian king who increased the territory of France, and wanted to form a stronger central government. He was the most powerful of the Capetian Kings and was willing to do anything to get what he wanted.
This was an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France. It was a government body created to increase the power of the king over the nobility.
This was a city in southern France which became home to the Papacy from 1305 to 1377. When Clement V was elected pope in 1305 he moved the the center of Church power to this city.
A period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over who should be the pope. During this time there were two, or sometimes even three people claiming to be the true Pope.
He was an English reformer who translated the Bible into Anglo-Saxon, and spread radical teachings. He taught that Jesus is the head of the church not the pope, and that the Bible is the final authority for Christian life.
He was a Czechoslovakian religious reformer who taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the Pope. He was excommunicated from the Church in 1412, tried as a heratic, and burned at the stake in 1415.
Also called the Black Death, this was a deadly disease that spread throughout Europe and killed one out of every three people, in the 1300’s.
Hundred Years’ War
A Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families. This war lasted from 1337 to 1453 and changed forever the the style of Warfare in Europe.
Joan of Arc
She was a French peasant girl who became a military leader, inspired by religious visions that told her to organize a French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII, of France, crowned king. She was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake in 1431.
The appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles.
(1096 to 1099) This crusade was launched by Pope Urban II and is considered the only successful crusade because they recaptured Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks.
The crusades goal was to recapture Edessa but was a failure because of internal disagreements among the crusaders. This led to the lose of not only Edessa but also Jerusalem in 1187. [1145 to 1147]
Started in 1204 this Crusade never even reached the Holy Land but instead plundered Constantinople, a Christian City.
This was a style of archetecture that was used in the building of churches from between 800 and 1100 AD. This style was characterized by thick walls, small windows, and rounded arches.
St.Francis of Assisi
The Italian saint who founded the Franciscan order of friars in the 12th, and 13th Centures. He believed in treating all creatures, including animals, as spiritual brothers and sisters.